World_War_I-1 - World War I World Remaking the Middle East...

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Unformatted text preview: World War I: World Remaking the Middle East v=6OOX3H_oTKA Argument Argument World War I settlements had two huge consequences for the Middle East • Replaced the Ottoman Empire with an unstable collection of nation­states • Installed a foreign presence Nation-States Nation-States Replaced the Ottoman Empire with an unstable collection of nation­states 1. Creation and consequences of borders 2. Nature of leadership 3. Need for a nation Installed a foreign presence 1. 2. Dependent independence Creation of Israel Abdul Hamid II Abdul Promises Constitutional Rule 1876 Abrogates Parliament 1878 Rejects restrictions on rule, European institutions Who belongs? Replaces Ottomanism with Islam Emphasizes position as Caliph Suppresses opposition, Armenians Expands education, rail (Orient Express) Germans reorganize armed forces • Kaiser Wilhelm visits 1889, 1898 • Hijaz Railway Committee of Union and Progress 1908 (Young Turks) (Young What works? Japan defeats Russia, 1905: modern military and constitution Opposition CUP: Military medical students, exiles, officers Demand Abdul Hamid II comply with Constitution Officers in Salonika lead revolt Conterrevolution 1909 Ottoman Third Army Saloniki Elections 1912 Lose Balkan territories Creation of Triumverate with real power 1913 • New Sultan Mehmet V Europe Changes Europe Germany gets stronger Triple Alliance 1882: Germany, Austria­ Hungary, Italy Triple Entente 1907: France, Russia, Great Britain Danger! England and Russia agree to partition Iran 1907 World War I World 16 August 1914 Goeben and Breslau become Yavuz Sultan Selim and Midilli Commander takes over Ottoman navy Gallipoli campaign Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) Eastern front: Armenians Mesopotamia Mesopotamia Goals: Route to India and Iran’s Oil Early successes Kut 147 days (7 December 1915­29 April 1916) • 1912 navy Promises: Sharif Husayn— McMahon Correspondence Arab Revolt eo/2672384 Promises Promises Sykes­Picot Agreeme Promises Balfour Declaration Promises Promises Anglo­French Joint Statement .html Faisal takes Damascus 1918 Syrian Conference makes him King of independent Syria French force him out Brother Abdullah to the rescue Arab and British forces take Jerusalem, Damascus Peace Conferences • • • • Mandates (San Remo 1920) French force Faysal out of Damascus Future of Turkey (Sevres 1920) http://www.atlas­­1945/cartes/TurquieSevres.html 1921 Cairo Conference creates Transjordan Left to right: King Ali of the Hijaz, King Abdullah of Jordan, Crown Prince (later King) Talal of Jordan, Abdul llah (Regent of Iraq), circa 1937. © Royal Hashemite Court Archives sjordan.html ...
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