Ottomanscombined - Ottoman Empire Empire...

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Unformatted text preview: Ottoman Empire Empire Outline Outline Creation of Empires The Ottoman Empire: Rise and “Decline” Napoleon’s Invasion Muhammad Ali in Egypt Expansion of Islam Expansion Caliph and Caliphate Ahl al­Kitab: Peoples of the Book Jihad: Struggle Conversion and Taxation Who belongs: Arabs and mawali Creation of Empire Creation Umayyads 661-750 Abbasids 750-1258 Big Issues for the Future: Big What is a just state? Who has the right to rule? Who belongs? What should people do if the ruler is unjust? Which version of faith/law is best? Who defines religion and spirituality? Ottoman Expansion Empire in 1800 Empire in 1914 Ottoman Empire: Rise Ottoman Begins with Muslim horse nomads from Central Asia Create and sustain enormous empire • • • • Decentralized Adapt new technologies Accept economic change Incorporate existing structures Decentralization and adaptability allow long survival Taking Constantinople Taking Methods of Conquest • • • Ottoman Institutions Ottoman Elites Vienna beseiged 1529 and 1683. Arab areas taken in 1510s. Incorporation of new (Christian) areas • Bureaucracy, Family, Soldiers Sultan Grand Vizier Sublime Porte Religion • • • Role of Islam Millets Patriarchs Sulayman the Magnificent Sulayman Sultan 1520­1566 Belgrade 1521, Rhodes 1522, Buda 1529, not Vienna Admiral Barbarossa waged war in Mediterranean Qanuni (Sulayman the Lawgiver) Husband of Hurrem • Contemporary of Charles V (Hapsburg), King Henry VIII (England) and King Francis I (France). And Decline And Military defeats become prevalent by 1700s • • • • Vienna 1683 Carlowitz 1699 Passarowitz 1718 Napoleon 1798 What is decline? Arguments over causes •At that time: •Not consistent with our faith •Become more orthodox •Become more adaptive •Not enough like Europe Later theories: •Testosterone theory •Ibn Khaldun •Decline of the economic base: constant borders and tax farming •Decline of revenue from trade as Europeans compete in the Indian Ocean •Global considerations: silver inflation •Growth of the economies and technologies of Europe •Does contraction mean decline? How do we explain the Ottoman empire relative to Europe? Muhammad Ali Muhammad Governed Egypt 1805­1849 Wahabbis 1818 Greece 1824 Syria 1833, 1838 Modernize military ­Consequences? ­Al­Tahtawi Muhammad Ali: Money Muhammad Taxes Land tenure New Crops Infrastructure (corvee labor) Industries Monopolies Manpower and Equipment Manpower Education • • • Health Care Organization • • • Trips abroad Create schools Translate books Funding Industrialization (labor) (See money) Conscript army New officers End to old system of Mamluk households Tahtawi Tahtawi Outline Outline Creation of Empires The Ottoman Empire: Rise and “Decline” Napoleon’s Invasion Muhammad Ali in Egypt ...
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