ch15 - Chapter 15 The Immune System 151 Chapter 15 Outline...

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Chapter 15 The Immune System 15-1
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Chapter 15 Outline Innate Immunity Adaptive Immunity Complement System T Cells Histocompatibility Antigens Interactions Between Antigen-Presenting Cells and Lymphocytes Active Immunity Passive Immunity Immune System and Cancer Diseases Caused By Immune System 15-2
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Defense Mechanisms Against pathogens constitute the immune system Can be grouped into 2 categories: Innate ( nonspecific ) immunity is inherited as part of structure of each organism Adaptive ( specific ) immunity is a function of lymphocytes and changes with exposure 15-3
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Innate Immunity 15-4
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Table 15.1
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Innate Immunity Distinguishes between “self” and “non-self” Is 1st line of defense against invading pathogens Includes epithelial barriers, high acidity of gastric juice, phagocytosis, and fever 15-5
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Fig. 13.1
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Fig. 13.3
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Table 13.2
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Phagocytosis Is triggered in response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns ( PAMPs ) produced only by microorganisms Best known are lipopolysaccharide ( LPS ) from gram-bacteria and peptidoglycan from gram+s Some immune cells have receptors for PAMPs (called Toll receptors ) 15-6
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Phagocytosis continued Is performed by 3 classes of phagocytic cells: Neutrophils - 1st to arrive at infection sites Mononuclear phagocytes - macrophages and monocytes Organ-specific phagocytes in liver, spleen, lymph nodes, lungs, and brain Fixed phagocytes line sinusoids of liver, spleen, and lymph nodes and remove pathogens 15-7
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Table 15.2
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Connective tissue and blood contain mobile leukocytes (WBCs) These are attracted to infection ( chemotaxis ) by chemokines WBCs from blood exit capillaries by extravasation ( diapedesis ) and ingest pathogens Phagocytosis continued 15-8
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Pseudopods from phagocyte surround pathogen Forming a vacuole Vacuole fuses with lysosomes which digest pathogen Phagocytosis continued 15-9
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Fever Appears to be component of innate immunity Occurs when hypothalamic thermostat is reset upwards by IL1- β and other cytokines ( endogenous pyrogens ) Pyrogens are released by WBCs in response to endotoxin from gram– bacteria 15-10
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Interferons Are polypeptides produced by cells infected with virus that provide short-acting, non-specific resistance to viral infection in nearby cells 3 types: a, b, g, interferon 15-11
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Adaptive Immunity 15-14
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Adaptive Immunity Is acquired ability to defend against specific pathogens by prior exposure to those pathogens Is mediated by production of specific antibodies by lymphocytes 15-15
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Antigens Are molecules that elicit production of antibodies that specifically bind those antigens Are usually large molecules that are foreign to the body Immune system can distinguish “self” molecules from non-self antigens Normally makes antibodies only against non-self antigens Large, complex molecules can have a number of antigenic determinant sites (different sites that stimulate production of, and bind to, different antibodies) 15-16
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ch15 - Chapter 15 The Immune System 151 Chapter 15 Outline...

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