Chapter One Notes
Art – advertise, instruct, record ideas and images, supernatural/religious, ceremonial, self-expression,
social or political comment or protest. Reasons used for quite a long time, advertising more recently than
others. Cave painting, Chauvet cave, Pont d’Arc, France, c. 28,000 B.C. Donkeys, rhinos, bison Fig. 335.
c. = circa, or approximately.
B.C. = before Christ, ( before the year 1) politically correct trying to get away from B.C. and A.D. and
change to B.C.E. & C.E (before common era and common era) we’ll stick with B.C. and A.D. to keep it
*common abbreviations 1. i.e. = id est, Latin for “that is” 2. e.g. = exempli gratia, Latin for “for example”
3. etc. = et cetera, Latin for “and so on” 4. N.B. = Nota Bene, Italian for “note [this] well”
Bison out of reindeer antler, example of Neolithic art, c. 10,000 B.C. – not in book
Woman (Venus) of Willendorf
, c. 25,000 – 20,000 B.C, example of Paleolithic Art, Fig. 333 Carbon
dating doesn’t work on stone – it tells you how old the stone is, not the art on it. Willendorf assumed to be
fertility object because of emphasis on breasts and pelvic triangle. No face, either. Stylized hairdo or
knitted cap. This object can be held in one hand. A few years ago a geologist said that this type of stone
has a natural tendency to produce holes, like the navel – could be possible that artist found the stone with
the hole in it.
Neolithic – new stone age, begins c. 10,000 B.C.
Paleolithic – old stone age, begins c. 30,000 B.C.
Monolith – a single large stone
LITH = stone
How old is the oldest surviving art? C. 30,000 years old Earliest art made probably to serve this purpose:
D. Religious or supernatural. Supernatural means something intangible here. People didn’t know how to
write, so art (visual images) was a way of communicating. Cave paintings are believed to be made for
supernatural reasons, too. Could be hunting magic to get herds of animals to come to tribe. Early images
of man – handprints & stick figures, a man hunting for same reason as above – hunting magic. 30,000 –
20,000 B.C. are dates for cave paintings. Made very deep inside caves, past narrow entrances, not easy to
live in. Ceremonial type of image, since it’s not easy to get to. Fig. 8 Dance Wand in Honor of Eshu, 20
inches high- Dedicated to god who is a trickster, god who is a messenger as well worshipped by Yoruba
tribe, made of wood with strings of shells attached. Shells were an early form of money, and this god is
also god of the marketplace. Early examples haven’t survived because of fire, animals, earthquakes, etc.
Fig. 457 Tyi Wara Dancers wearing headdresses of Mali; paying homage to antelope who is teacher of
mankind, it taught man how to farm. Male and female with male baby. Fig. 465, Protective Prow Figure
from a War Canoe, designed to protect the riders in a canoe in South Pacific, a vast area of water to cross
between islands Fig. 2 Buddhist Wheel of Time, religious art designed to be an aid to meditation; it helps