Music Notes for Midterm 2 - Music Notes for Midterm 2/10...

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Music Notes for Midterm 2/10 23:03 Harmony : implies movement/progression. It is the progression of harmony in a musical work that creates a feeling of order and unity (19) Harmony: vertical (tones, chords) Melody: horizontal Tonality: organization around a central tone, the tonic Dissonance: tension, instability, conflict Consonance: release, resolves, pleasing Texture : interweaving of melodic lines with harmony Monophony: single melody, single pitch Homophony: single melody + accompaniment o Homorhythm: multiple voices, different notes/pitches but same text and rhythm Heterophony: 2 or more voices elaborating same melody simultaneously Polyphony: 2 or more voices sounding simultaneously, one line against another, independent/interdependent lines o Imitivative polyphony: multiple voices, same melody with staggered entrances, “imitating” Canon: imitative work (round) Form : work’s structure/shape; how music proceeds in time; describes repetition and contrast within Strophic: same melody for each verse Variation: some aspects of music are altered but original is still recognizable Binary form: two-part, A-B Ternary form: three-part, A-B-A Call-and-response/responsorial
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Ostinato: short melody, rhythm, or set of chords repeated many times Movement: complete, comparatively independent division of a large-scale work Tempo : rate of speed of music Presto: very fast Allegro: fast Andante: walking speed Moderato: moderate speed Adagio: slow Largo: very slow Dynamics : volume Mezzo piano (mp): moderately soft Mezzo forte (mf): moderately loud Musical Instruments Timbre: tone color Register: range of instrument/voice Vocal ranges: soprano, mezzo-soprano, alto, tenor, baritone, bass Four families: strings, woodwinds, brass, and percussion Strings: violin, viola, (violin)cello, and (double)bass 4 strings bowed and plucked Pizzicato: plucking Woodwinds: piccolo, flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon Piccolo: highest pitched Flute: (hold instrument to the side) soprano voice, frequently melody instrument Oboe: players blows directly into a double reed; nasal sound, tuning instrument Clarinet: single reed with mouthpiece; smooth, liquid tone Bassoon: double-reed Brass: trumpet, French horn, trombone, and tuba Trumpet: highest pitched; brilliant, clear timbre French horn: mellow resonance, distant sound; (twisted round shape) Trombone: full, rich sound; movable U-shaped slide Tuba: bass instrument; dark resonance Percussion: Timpani Timpani: capable of producing pitch Keyboard: piano(forte), organ, harpsichord Musical Ensembles Chamber ensemble: 2-12 players
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The Middle Ages (476-1450) 23:03 Gregorian chant (plainchant): single-line melody, monophonic texture, lacking harmony and free rhythm
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The Middle Ages (476-1450) 23:03 Syllabic: one note per syllable Neumatic: 5-6 notes per syllable Melismatic: many notes per syllable Myth of Gregorian chant Charlemagne crowned Holy Roman Emperor (800) Pope wanted more secular power
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