Bollen - Cross-National Validity (Methods)

Bollen - Cross-National Validity (Methods) - Kenneth...

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Kenneth Bollen, “Liberal Democracy: Validity and Method Factors in Cross-National Measures” This paper examines liberal democracy. Definition: The extent to which a political system allows political liberties and democratic rule. Political liberties exist to the extent that the people of a country have the freedom to express a variety of political opinions in any media and the freedom to form or to participate in any political group. Democratic rule exists to the extent that the national government is accountable to the general population, and each individual is entitled to participate d in the government directly or through representatives. The paper: 1) Proposes a working definition of liberal democracy and its two primary dimensions – political liberties and democratic rule 2) Outlines a theory of systematic error (or “method factors”) in subjective measures of liberal democracy. 3) Provides the first estimates of the proportion of variance due to method factors, validity and random error in commonly used measures 4) To replicate these results across several years 5) Estimate the degree of liberal democracy in more than 150 countries. There’s an initial distinction between “liberal democracy” and the “people’s democracy”. Liberal democracy is the focus of this research. It’s a powerful, influential system that is present in the contemporary world, but it is a political system being tried out in many countries in the former Second and Third World. He defines democracy and explains the problem with it. As indicated by a variable like voter turnout, some countries would not be classified as a democracy because of low voter turnout. He utilizes this point to illustrate the controversy in measuring liberal democracy. He uses subjective measures here. The advantages of doing so is that they can gauge key traits of liberal democracy that escape
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Bollen - Cross-National Validity (Methods) - Kenneth...

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