PSB2000 STUDY GUIDE TEST 1 - Chapter 1 Major Issues...

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Chapter 1 Major Issues Biological Psychology- The scientific study of the biological aspects of animal behavior Physiological Explanations : relate behavior to the activity of the brain and other organs. Ontogenetic Explanations: relate behavior to the development of the animal. Evolutionary Explanations: relate behavior to the evolutionary history of the animal. Functional Explanations : describe why a behavior evolved as it did. Cells of Nervouse System Neurons - Main signaling units of the nervous system. They receive information and transmit it to other cells. There are approximately 85 billion neurons in the human central nervous system. Glia - Provide structural and functional support for neurons. These cells do not transmit information over long distances. Basic Structure of Animal Cell CELL MEMBRANE: Lipid bilayer sandwich of phospholipids with protein molecules inserted. NUCLEUS: Membrane-enclosed structure that contains chromosomes possessing genes made of DNA. MITOCHONDRIA: Responsible for aerobic energy metabolism. Performs a variety of metabolic activities. RIBOSOMES: Site of protein synthesis. Many ribosomesare attached to (rough) endoplasmic reticulum. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM: a network of thin tubes that transport newly synthesized proteins to other locations in the cell. GOLGI APPARATUS: series of sacs that packages and modifies proteins Genes • Genes express their influence on behavior through the proteins they encode • A gene is a portion of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), of which chromosomes are composed, that codes for a specific protein. • Every cell in the body contains the same genes • What makes one cell type different from another is dependent on which genes get expressed. • Gene expression is determined by the interaction of several factors including molecules within and nearby the cell. Protein Synthesis • Proteins contribute to the structure and function of the cell. Many enzymes are proteins and serve to catalyze and regulate specific chemical reactions in the body. • In the nucleus, DNA is transcribed by the complementary version of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA). • mRNA is translated outside of the nucleus in ribosomeswhere proteins are made by joining amino acids together. Genes •• Homozygous for a gene means that a person has an identical pair of genes on the two chromosomes •• Heterozygous for a gene means that a person has an unmatched pair of genes on the two chromosomes. •• Some genes can be either dominant or recessive.
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(Examples: eye color, ability to taste PTC) •• A dominant gene shows a strong effect in either the homozygous or heterozygous condition. •• A recessive gene shows its effect only in the homozygous condition. Types of Genes Include: –– Autosomal genes all genes except for sex-- linked genes.
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