PHYSICS 6C GUIDE - PHYSICS 6C GUIDE By Aaron...

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PHYSICS 6C GUIDE By Aaron ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES f c n v λ = = in a vacuum 8 3 10 / v c m s = = × E cB = v stays the same in materia n = index of refraction of material Radio | microwave | infrared | visible | ultraviolet | X | Gamma 2 4 6 8 9 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 m λ 3 5 7 8 9 .1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 f G H z POLARIZATION (I = Intensity) Un-polarized light through polarizer: 0 2 I I = Polarized light through polarizer: 2 0 cos ( ) I I θ = SNELL’S LAW 1 2 sin( ) sin( ) incident refract n n θ θ = Low Æ high n, light bends straight Total internal reflection when 1 2 2 sin( ) n n if n n 1 θ > > MIRRORS/THIN LENSES f = focal length (from lens) S = object length, S’ = image length R = radius of curvature, 1 being first side light hits ( ) 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 n f S S R R = + = Mirror: image is in front: s’ > 0, image is behind, s’ < 0 s > 0 (except imaginary) Lens: image is opposite light, s’ > 0, image is on same side, s’ < 0 Magnification y S M y S = = − y = object height CONVERGING RAYS Concave mirror x), convex lens () f = +½ R Images real when outside f, virtual when inside f Real images inverted, projected, smaller when S > 2f, larger when f < S < 2f
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