Evolution and Genetics - Evolution and Genetics 23:52:00...

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Evolution and Genetics 09/02/2009 00:52:00 Evolution Given that heritable traits (structure, physiology, and behavior) of members of  a species can vary, natural selection is the process in which those traits  associated with high rates of survival and reproduction are more likely to pass  on to future generations Same species can evolve differently to adapt to their environment Evolution of Brain Most of the relative increase in brain size is in the size of the cerebral cortex Evolution of behaviors o Innate abilities that are necessary to survive o Imprinting – special bond with the first animal they see after it hatches Mating Behavior: A selection process Combination of physical and behavioral traits Advertising one’s sex and intentions Courtship rituals -> behavioral without physical traits Different evolutionary pressures have led to sex differences o Monogamy – mating system in which female and male form breeding  pair that may last for one breeding period or for a lifetime (most bird  species) Birds are evolutionary equal in that both male and female are  invested in keeping offspring alive o Polygamy – mating system in which one male mates with more than  one female (most mammal species) Mother can do everything, father isn’t as equally invested, so  have as many partners as possible to pass on traits o Sexual dimorphism – structural difference between sexes o Females look for strong males, males look for fertile females
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