The American Promise, Ch 4 Outline

The American Promise Value Edition, Combined Version (Volumes I & II): A History of the United States

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I. Puritan Origins: The English Reformation A. The religious roots of the Puritans who founded New England reached back to the Protestant Reformation. B. England's King Henry VIII understood that the Reformation offered him an opportunity to break with Rome and take control of the church in England; in 1534, Parliament, at his insistence, passed the Act of Supremacy, which outlawed the Catholic Church in England. C. The English Reformation divided the country's people: Some wished to return to Catholicism, while others sought a more genuine reformation. D. Those who favored a more genuine, comprehensive Reformation came to be called Puritans. E. During the sixteenth century, Puritanism was less an organized movement than a set of ideas and religious principles that appealed strongly to many groups of dissenting members of the Church of England. F. The fate of Protestantism waxed and waned under Edward VI, Mary I, Elizabeth I, James I, and Charles I, the successors of Henry VIII; in particular, James I and his son Charles I were especially unreceptive to the ideas of Puritan reformers. G. The aggressive anti-Puritan policies of Charles I compelled many Puritans to emigrate; the largest number set out for America. II. Puritans and the Settlement of New England A. The Pilgrims and Plymouth Colony 1. One of the earliest Puritan groups to emigrate from England, later known as Pilgrims, espoused a heresy known as separatism: They sought to withdraw and separate from the Church of England, which they considered hopelessly corrupt. 2. The Pilgrims, who had obtained permission to settle in the extensive lands granted to the Virginia Company, landed in present-day Massachusetts in 1620. 3. Although they had no legal authority from the king to settle in this area, on the day that the Pilgrims arrived they drew up the Mayflower Compact to provide order and security as well as a claim to legitimacy. 4. The Pilgrims soon settled at Plymouth and elected William Bradford as their governor. 5. The colony struggled to survive the first winter, during which half of its members died. 6. In the spring, nearby Wampanoag Indians rescued the floundering colony from starvation. 7. The colony's status remained precarious, but the Pilgrims coexisted in relative peace with the Indians. B. The Founding of Massachusetts Bay Colony 1. In 1629, a group of Puritan merchants and country gentlemen in England obtained a royal charter for the Massachusetts Bay Company that provided the usual privileges granted to
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joint stock companies, including land for colonization that spanned present-day Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Vermont, Maine, and upstate New York. 2. In addition, the charter allowed the government of the company to be located in the colony rather than in England, making the Puritans self-governing.
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  • English Reformation, Massachusetts, Massachusetts Bay Colony, Charles I of England

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