The American Promise, Ch 19 Outline

The American Promise Value Edition, Combined Version (Volumes I & II): A History of the United States

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I. The Rise of the City A. The Urban Explosion, a Global Migration 1. In the waning decades of the nineteenth century the movement from rural areas to urban industrial centers attracted millions of immigrants to American shores. 2. Capitalist development in the late 1800s shattered traditional patterns of economic activity in the rural periphery, and as old patterns broke down, rural areas exported, along with raw materials, new recruits for the industrial labor force. 3. Beginning in the 1870s, railroad expansion and low steamship fares gave the world's people newfound mobility, enabling industrialists to draw on the global population for cheap labor. 4. European immigration came in two distinct waves: before 1880, the majority of immigrants came from northern and western Europe; after 1880, the majority came from southern and eastern Europe. 5. The new wave of immigration resulted from a number of factors, including an economic depression in southern Italy, the persecution of Jews in eastern Europe, a general desire to avoid conscription into the Russian army, and America's need for cheap labor. 6. Would-be immigrants eager for information about the United States relied on letters, advertisements, and word of mouth—sources that were not always dependable or truthful. 7. Most new immigrants remained in cities, but not all newcomers came to stay—many young men worked for a year or a season and then returned to their homelands. 8. Women most often came to the U.S. as wives, mothers, and daughters and not as single- wage laborers. 9. Jews, escaping pogroms in eastern Europe, usually came with their families and came to stay. B. Racism and the Cry for Immigration Restriction 1. Ethnic diversity and racism played a role in dividing skilled workers, usually members of older immigrant groups from northern or western Europe, from the unskilled, those from southern and eastern Europe. 2. Throughout the nineteenth and into the twentieth century, members of the educated elite as well as workers viewed ethnic and even religious differences as racial characteristics. 3. Many African Americans migrated to the cities of the North, where they hoped to escape Jim Crow laws and pursue economic opportunities. 4. On the West Coast, the Asian population grew until the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act slowed Chinese immigration to a trickle. 5. On the East Coast the volume of new immigrants from Europe that began in the 1880s proved to be unprecedented. 6. Many Americans saw new immigrants as uneducated, backward, and uncouth, and blue- blooded Yankees such as Senator Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts formed an unlikely alliance with organized labor to press for immigration restriction. C. The Social Geography of the City
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1. During the Gilded Age, cities experienced both demographic and technological changes that greatly altered the urban social geography.
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