The American Promise, Ch 30 Outline

The American Promise Value Edition, Combined Version (Volumes I & II): A History of the United States

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I. Nixon and the Rise of Postwar Conservatism A. Emergence of a Grassroots Movement 1. Although Lyndon Johnson's landslide victory over Barry Goldwater in 1964 appeared to signify liberalism triumphant, those election results actually concealed a rising conservative movement. 2. A growing grassroots movement, especially vigorous in the South and the West and including middle-class suburban men and women, members of the rabidly anti- Communist John Birch Society, and college students in the new Young Americans for Freedom, had enabled Goldwater to win the nomination. 3. The rise of grassroots conservatism was not limited to the West and South, a number of factors in the Sun Belt fostered its growth in these areas. 4. Populations in Orange County, CA; Dallas, TX; Scottsdale, AZ; and Jefferson Parish, LA were predominantly white, relatively homogeneous, skilled and economically comfortable; these cities also contained military bases and defense production facilities. 5. The West had a long tradition of Protestant morality, individualism, and opposition to federal interference. 6. The South shared the West's antipathy toward the federal government, but southern hostility to racial change was much more central to the new conservatism. 7. Grassroots movements emerged around a number of issues that conservatives believed marked the “moral decline” of the nation. 8. Grassroots protests against taxes grew alongside concerns about morality. B. Nixon Courts the Right 1. In the 1968 campaign, Nixon's “southern strategy” exploited antipathy to black protest and to new civil rights policies, making inroads into traditional Democratic strongholds. 2. The Nixon administration reluctantly enforced court orders to achieve high degrees of integration in southern schools, but it stymied efforts to deal with segregation outside the South. 3. After courts began to order transfers of students between schools in white and black neighborhoods to achieve desegregation, busing became “political dynamite.” 4. Although children had been riding buses to schools for decades, busing for racial integration provoked outrage. 5. Nixon failed to persuade Congress to end court-ordered busing; after he appointed four new justices, the Supreme Court moved in the president's direction, and in Milliken v. Bradley (1974), the Court imposed strict limits on the use of busing to achieve racial balance. 6. When Earl Warren resigned in June 1969, Nixon replaced him with Warren E. Burger, a federal appeals court judge who was seen as a strict constitutionalist; the Burger Court upheld many liberal programs of the 1960s, limited the range of affirmative action in Regents of University of California v. Bakke , but liberalized abortion laws in Roe v. Wade .
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7. Unions and civil rights groups mounted strong campaigns against Nixon's next two nominees, conservative southern judges, and the Senate forced him to settle on more moderate candidates.
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