lecture2 - Organization of the Nervous System Sagittal,...

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1 Organization of the Nervous System Terms of Orientation (Box 2.1) • Sagittal, coronal, horizontal • Medial, lateral, ipsilateral, contralateral • Anterior, cephalic, rostral • Posterior, caudal •Prox ima
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2 Meninges • Membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord • Dura mater •Arachno id •P iamater I. Central Nervous System • Two major parts: •1 ) S p i n a l c o rd • 2) Brain; subdivided into: cerebral hemispheres (cerebral cortex)
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3 Useful terms to identify central and peripheral groups of neurons and fibers • Nuclei – aggregation of neuronal cell bodies that share many connections and functions into a circumscribed region of the central nervous system (ex. Hypoglossal nucleus) • Ganglia – same def as nuclei but with peripheral nervous system • Tract – aggregations of axons from groups of neurons that have common targets. May arise from one or many sources (ex. Corticospinal tract) • Nerve – same as tract but for peripheral nervous system • White matter: white areas of central nervous system, contains mostly myelinated axons (myelin is responsible for the white color) • Gray matter: contains mainly perikarya and dendrites • Autonomic nervous system
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4 The Spinal Cord • Functions: control body movements and process sensory information from different body parts and internal organs • Organization • Butterfly-shaped gray matter surrounded by white matter Gray Matter • Subdivided into three major zones: • 1) Dorsal horn: receives sensory information from the periphery (dorsal root nerve) • 2) Ventral horn: contains motor neurons that innervate muscles (ventral root nerve) • 3) Intermediate zone: mediates communication between ventral and dorsal horns (sympathetic nervous system); contains neurons of the autonomic nervous system; mediates visceral functions
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5 • Has a clear segmental division: cervical (8), thoracic (12), lumbar (5), and sacral (5) • Has a pair of nerve roots that form spinal nerves • Dorsal root: sensory axons, bring info from periphery to CNS, terminate in the dorsal horn • Ventral root: motor axons, transmit motor commands to muscles, arise in the ventral horn Internal organization: white matter • Dorsal column: axons of dorsal root ganglion cells that carry somatosensory information from the periphery • Lateral column – contains mostly descending axons of the corticospinal tract (controls limb muscles) • Ventral column – contains both motor and sensory fibers
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6 The Brainstem • Anatomical organization: includes the medulla, pons, and midbrain • Main functions: • 1) receives sensory info from cranial structures and controls muscles of the head
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lecture2 - Organization of the Nervous System Sagittal,...

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