ven2lec5_(climaticlimits)

ven2lec5_(climaticlimits) - VEN 2 Climatic Limits to...

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VEN 2 Climatic Limits to Viticulture and Grape Growing Regions In the USA and California
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Climatic Limits to Viticulture Climate has a major influence on both the quantity and quality of grape production. Research in the past 40 years has led to a better understanding of how climate brings about such changes in grapes.
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Climate Macro-climate (Regional Climate) Meso-climate (Topo or Site-climate) Micro-climate (Canopy climate)
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This would be an example of a grape production area’s macro-climate. This is the Coachella Valley in Southern California (near Palm Springs).
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Below is an example of meso-climate (an individual vineyard). The vineyard in the foreground would differ from those close to the tree line.
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The micro-climate is that within and immediately surrounding the vine’s canopy. The below vines are examples of large, dense canopies
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Outside (Ambient) Inside
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Relative differences in environmental factors from outside to inside a dense grapevine canopy Humidity – inside > 90% of ambient Temperature – inside > 90% of ambient Wind – inside < 10% of ambient Evaporation – inside < 10% of ambient Radiation inside: PFD – 1% of ambient Shortwave – 10% of ambient Red/far red - < 10% of ambient
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Outside PFD = 2000 μmol m -2 s -1 Inside < 40 μmol m -2 s -1
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Trellises and canopy management can be used to control the microclimate of the fruiting zone. The trellis system below is the VSP (Vertical Shoot Positioning) and leaves were removed in the fruiting zone to allow more direct light on the clusters.
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Climate variables favorable for Vitis vinifera growth It is a temperate climate species It is not adapted to extreme winter cold It requires a minimal number of chilling hours (~200 hours < 3 ° C [37 ° F]) It needs warm to hot temperatures to ripen the fruit (accumulate sugars, pigments and flavor compounds) Minimal summer rainfall The above describes what is known as a ‘Mediterranean type climate’
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Where does viticulture take place? In broad terms, viticulture is restricted to the below listed latitudes: Northern Hemisphere 30 ° N to 50 ° N Southern Hemisphere 30 ° S to 40 ° S These latitudes approximate the 10 and 20 ° C isotherms (50 and 68 ° F isotherms)
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20 20 This map is from the ‘Biology of the Grapevine’. The 50 ° C isotherm in the book should be instead 20 ° C. Equator Isotherm 10 ° C Isotherm 20 ° C Isotherm 20 ° C Isotherm 10 ° C
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Table grapes can be produced in the tropics. Chilling requirements can be overcome by spraying the vines with hydrogen cyanamide (H 2 CN) after pruning. Venezuela, Columbia, India, Thailand, and Indonesia are some of the countries producing grapes in the tropics. Grapevines can be grown in colder climates if the vineyards are planted
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This note was uploaded on 03/01/2009 for the course VEN 2 taught by Professor Williams during the Spring '09 term at UC Davis.

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ven2lec5_(climaticlimits) - VEN 2 Climatic Limits to...

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