II Introductory Material B PRS

II Introductory Material B PRS - I Introductory Material B...

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I Introductory Material B. Introduction to Chemistry Fundamentals and Properties of Chemistry
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What is Chemistry? Study of Matter and its properties Changes that matter undergoes Energy associated with the changes Generally we have macroscopic observation of molecular (submicroscopic) events
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States (Phases) of Matter Solid Liquid Gas (Plasma) Ionized gas Cloud of protons, neutrons and electrons where the electrons have come loose and the plasma acts as a whole unit rather than individual atoms Most common phase of matter, makes up 99% on the visible universe (Bose Condensate or Bose Einstein) It occurs at ultra-low temperature, close to the point that the atoms are not moving at all. A Bose-Einstein condensate is a gaseous superfluid phase formed by atoms cooled to temperatures very near to absolute zero. Under such conditions, a large fraction of the atoms collapse into the lowest quantum state, producing a superfluid.
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Description of Phases Macroscopic Solid: Relatively rigid (does not have to be completely rigid, e.g. soft wax) with a fixed volume and shape Liquid: Definite volume but able to change its shape by flowing Takes the shape of the container Gas: No definite volume or shape Conforms to the shape of the container
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Molecular(Sub microscopic) Solid: Atoms closely packed and organized Stay in place Not compressible Liquid: Atoms close together but disorganizes Free to move in limited area Stay in contact Gas Atoms very far apart and disorganized Free to move anywhere Do not stay in contact with each other
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Properties of Matter Physical Properties Those that are inherent in a substance Examples: boiling point, color,transparency etc Physical Change Substance alters its form, not its composition Change is reversible Example: ice to water to ice
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Chemical Properties What is exhibited as a substance changes into another substance Example: flammability, reaction with acid
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