VI Solutions B - VI Solutions B Water as a Solvent Polar...

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VI Solutions B Water as a Solvent
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Polar Nature of water O H H - + + Water has a positive side and a negative side
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Solvation Solute molecules or ions are surrounded by solvent molecules in a specific position Hydration Solvation when the solvent is water N aC l(s ) H 2 O →  N a + (a q ) + C l - (a q ) H H H O H O Na + O H O H H H H H O Cl - O H H Have ion - dipole or dipole - dipole interaction
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Solubility Amount of solute that dissolves in solvent Soluble All solute dissolves (no precipitate forms) Slightly soluble Some solute dissolves (slight precipitate forms) Insoluble No solute dissolves (or very little) (lots of precipitate forms)
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Kinds of Solutes (and solutions formed) Non - electrolyte Solute stays as molecules, does not ionize e.g. glucose All sugars Molecular compounds C 6 H 12 O 6 (s) H 2 O →  C 6 H 12 O 6 (aq )
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Electrolytes Acids, bases, and salts Metal cations + non-metal anions – Solute dissociates in H 2 O Ionizes Weak electrolyte Partially ionizes (partially dissociates) All three species in solution in equilibrium Strong electrolyte Completely ionizes (completely dissociates) AB (s) H2 O → A + (aq ) + B - (aq ) AB (s) H2 O → AB (aq ) A + (aq ) + B - (aq ) AB (s) H2 O → A + (aq ) + B - (aq )
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Concentration of Aqueous Solutions Concentration in molarity indicated by [X] [A] = 2.4M Non-electrolytes Concentration is given as concentration of AB(aq) Gives the concentration of non-electrolyte that dissolves in solvent [glucose] = 0.36 M Means that 0.36 moles of glucose dissolved in 1 L soln.
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Electrolytes
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VI Solutions B - VI Solutions B Water as a Solvent Polar...

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