Anxiety Disorders

Anxiety Disorders - Anxiety Disorders Phenomenology...

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Unformatted text preview: Anxiety Disorders Phenomenology, Etiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment Anxiety versus Fear • Anxiety : – Apprehension about future danger • Fear : – Alarm reaction to present danger – Fight or flight response Symptoms of Anxiety • Behavioral symptoms – Avoidance, escape • Cognitive symptoms – Excessive worry, hypervigilance, difficulty concentrating • Emotional symptoms – Dread, irritability, subjective distress • Physiological arousal Physiology of Anxiety • Brain : Limbic system (hippocampus, septum, amygdala) – Behavioral inhibition system: freeze, anxiety, apprehensively evaluate – Fight/flight system: alarm, flight – Neurotransmitter - GABA • HPA axis : Hypothalamic-pituitary- adrenalcortical Axis: – Hypothalamus - Pituitary gland - adrenal gland- cortisol HPA Axis • Hypothalamus → CRH to pituitary – CRH = corticotrophin-releasing hormone • Pituitary → ACTH to adrenal gland – ACTH = adrenocorticotrophic hormone • Adrenal gland → epinephrine (adrenaline) and cortisol hormone • Cortisol → hypothalamus & pituitary Biological Contributions • Genetic factors – Inherited predisposition to become anxious – Expression of anxiety influenced by social environment • Neurobiological Factors – BIS overactivity – Neurotransmitters: GABA, Norepinephrine, and serotonin Temperament...
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Anxiety Disorders - Anxiety Disorders Phenomenology...

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