Serafin Quiason - The Education of the Indio Elite

Serafin Quiason - The Education of the Indio Elite - THE...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–6. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
Image of page 5

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 6
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: THE INDEPENDENT REVIEW The education of the indio elite The rise ofthe thinking Filipino in the late 19th'century is a classic study in class formation. By Serrtfin Ll. Qttioson THE Philippines under Spain was a so- ciety of symbiotic and antagonistic classes. The structure of colonial society in 1396 was a pyrantid, with the ruling Spanish class of about 15,509 at tlte top, lording over a native tindio} populace that was close to 1? million. In between were a sprinkling offlirneriea ns and other , Europeans who were deeply involved in i the “cash crop“ economy and other It:- ctative enterprises, as well as the Chinese merchants and [he principalia or intlio elite. The ladies then were mostly peasants, with some providing lowly and menial services to the dominant classes. The Spanish friars were tlte real wielders of colonial power and ownetf great estates worked by tenants or inqttiliaos. The indio peasants were linked to the principalia and the friar estates through a system of peonage. The principalia in every ltey town was a cluster of interrelated fami- lies among whom the ownership of land was concentrated. Interinarriages among the principalia served as a web that hound the many families together, reinforced here and there by social interactions, mutual obligations and ethnic loyalties. I'D 'i'he tIhincse, numbering around 35,000 in and near Manila, were rnoslly en- trenched in Binondo, the economic nerve center of the colony. Dcspite the gross inequities, abttsive praclices, and other harsh conditions under the Spanish colonial order, the classes managed to live with each other up until the outbreak ofthe 1395 Revo— lution. The rhythmic flow was occasion— ally disrupted by outbursts of rural—ha sed indigenous rebellions in the archipelago, and in the 19th century by a flurry of urban—based Criollo resistance. 'l‘he‘con- flicts were generally Peninsulares against the Crlollos, Spanish colonial authorities against the rebellions of the indios, the antagonism and tension between the Spanish friars and the native clergy, and the irreconcilable conflict between the Spanish friars and the lay educated indios. II is against this broad backdrop [if-colonial rule that the formation ofthe indio educated class came about] t. The seeds ofa critical mind In Spanish Philippines, colonial etiti- cation was seen as an activity for only a small sector. The colonial state tofwhich FEBRUARY lei 55 THE INDEPENDENT REM-WEN Student boarders in Manila just before the turn of the century the church was a part]: was propped up by the traditional scale ot‘valttes. It en- couraged ceriain studies at a higher level for the sons of the principalia and even for a few poor but. deserving indies. Pt limited number tu'scholarships Jitte free tuition and board was offered under the “bees. system." For the few lorlunateortes who received colonial education, the training and knowledge were a status symbol as well as a means to advance one’s social standing. (:Ghlni'di education was chiefly handled by the Society ofJesus and the lElrder of Preachers. These two religious orders set up parochial schools, diocesan seminaries for the training of native priests, secondary,r schools for boys and girls, and even a higher institution of learning—the oontifieal University of Santo Tomas. Colonial education re- ceived a serious blow in 1%? when the Jesuits were expelled, but the Jesuits wottld eventually return after 91 years. In the 19th century, as the local economy grew, more secondary schools for boys and girls as well as vocational FEBRUARY HEB 'schools were put up, and professional courses began to he offered. T his was brought about by a combination of fac- tors: tlte opening of markets in Marina and the outlyingr ports; the influx of En- giish, flmerican, and liumpean mercan- tile firms; and above all the growth ofthe colonial population. The foreign J'nercantile houses, par- ticularly the English and American firms, played a major role in the “cash era 11:" economy, which undoubtedly con- trihutetl to the affluence of the principalia, allowing them enough tnoney to send their children to exclu— sive schools and colleges in Manila and in certain key towns. Benefiting also from the expanding trade were the Chinese who served as the intermediary between the indie consumers and the Western eommercial houses. Among the vocational schools estab- lished in this period were the Nautical School {1320}, the School of Commerce (1341?), the School of Fine Arts {1349}, the School of Trades {lSfil}, and the School of figrie ultu re { 1 335'}. At the Uni— } | THE INDEPENDENT REWEW yersity of Santo Tomas, professional schools of faculties for pharmacy, medi- cine and notaries were established lli?1, followed by philosophy and letters in 1396. Theology was offered not only at the University ot" Fan to Tomas but also at the seminary colleges of Ntteya Caeeres, San IZarlos , Jaro and Vigan. For centuries, priesthood was the only profession open to the indies. Seminar— irs were institutions mainly designed for the training of students for priesthood. Their scholastic education revolved around the development oi‘tlte seminar- ions as “true shepherds of souls." But many of those who entered the seminar- ies did so not because they were in need of religion, but because they wanted to learn. Many would later lease the semi- naries to pursue specialized vocations in Manila and Europe. The education-oi the native clergy showed a marked improvement with the arrival in lRt’iZ til the Urder of Saint 1|t'incent de Paul. Previously, the semina r~ its were regarded as training grounds for turning out half-ha lted native clergy. But with the passage of time, the new breed oft: atiye clergy, through shear talent an d Tt'lt'ill, began to excel in pastoral work. Its members began to rise in prominence. The indie had been so steeped in en- loniai education that in the lE'flls, a Eel- gian traveler, ]. De Man, wrote so glow- ingly about an indio secular priest he met in Calamba: “This priest is Indian but an Indian so exceptional that I cannot refrain from speaking about him. We Clint-'L‘I'SELl for more than one hour reviewing a great number of things about Europe, about history, literature, the arts, eta; every- thing was familiar to him to the smallest detail; passing from general history to the. in particular history ofi‘ttttwerp. He cited intimate affairs of the times ofthc Duke offilha and Rubens; in short, he was a man of great erudition, an extraordinary person who must be the only one of his kind it] the Philippines.” But the Calamba priest was no rare gem. Had]. de Man stayed long enough, he would have met several other indio priests wilh not only the same remarkable gifts of knowledge but who also led adm i - rahle litres. 'llro such persons were Fr. Eugenio de Santa lCruz, an indto from Parnpangu who was the provisot of the diocese of the Most Holy Name riflesus, anti Fr. Bartolotue Saginstn, an indin t'rornri'tn'lipnlo and parish priest onuiapo. From the spiritual to the temporal Theology was initially the mo sr popu— lar field of srudy for the sorts of the principalia, but the changing econonty drew more students to the study oflaw, pharmacy, medicine, philosophy and notartate because at" the tremendous so- cial prestige these eottrses Carried. In 1333-84, for instance, the graduates in iurispru dertce were 232 against as at the Faculty of Sacred Theology and Phi to so- phy of the tJnircrsityofSanto Tomas. Of the total annual graduates of about 3013. half took civil law and iurisprudence, and about 25 percent went into theological studies. In the teetering Spanish colony, law, medicine and notariate came close to the priestly profession in prestige and material gain. fits in the case of all societies, the edu- cated mind was acritical mind. The edu— cated indios and the iiustrados {or “en- lightened ones”) openly criticized the colonial education, saying that “the in— tellectual powers of the pupils were made dormant by devoting a greater part of time to the study of Latin, and for the purpose til—discouraging the pupils from studying Elle esat't arid experimental sci- FEEHUfi-R‘r ‘ '39:! i'-!|: tNDEF‘EN-DEN'I' REVIEW enees and from gaining; a knowledge [if true literary studies." llespile the limilulinns and inadequa— eies enfeeilenial etiueaiuin, the liirmuiimi uftlie edueatetl indiil elite was irrevers- ihle. This was enhuneeti h}: the return df the Jesuits and the establisiimeni iii' atl- ditiunal [ueulties in law, medicine and pharmacy hy lhi: lltilninieans. Most [if the pt‘lneipaliu patents were LlltiliStl‘r‘flS pdurl}.r educated hut devel— eped achievement values. They prriieeieil their unfulfilled ambitions enter their Children. A gnnd edueatitin was the best legacy that they eeultl give In 1heii- ehila dren, and the}.r made painful sacrifices in realise this. The sens efihe principaliu when stud- ied ll'l Manila began m get rid ut' :heir Ethnic prei'udices as they became ae- quaintedwith-:ineantilhei'.'l'heindiei stu- dents [nund miter students i'rnn'i sai'inirs ethnie groups agree-aisle~ enthusiastic, intelligent Lintl “pert niii'uieii. 'I'IirunLJi sneiaiizminn, 1he iiidiiisinelelits Jedi-gem- eted the richness nf ituiigenuus values. culture and ilistnr}: Tngelhet, they eriti- eizetl the weaknesses of the Spanish eu- FEBRUART I‘J‘Q‘S Filipino students in Hadrid,with Marcela H.del Pilar and {use Rizal luniul utiiieiitienal sysrem and the short- I earnings iii their Spanish teaehers. The satire can he said {if thnse when went in i foreign shares. l The itldlns whti studied abroad were I | iriflueneed h}: the ideas {if the Enlight- enmeiit (Lu Kinshasa-rm in Spanish in“ Li— i’umrmm in Italian] and inspired by the pnlitieul principles efihe Spanish Reve- : lutien of 1353. The young indies in Eu— i rune earn: tn be ltnnwn in Manila as ! “Ilustl‘ades” er 111'st de fr: iiirnrirea'an, er I the “enlightened tines.” i jese Rizal, in his Merriam-es rte 1m : Estudiairts, irii'iell‘j,r reenlleets the impact I nfhis studies of lilin'alute1 science and i phllnsnjihy: "The eyes {Ill—m}? intelligenee i opened a little and my heart begins to ' cherish ntihler sentiments.” Many years. later! in nine sil- his letters It} Ferdinand Elumentrin, u- lGeri-nan- Czech :ehelar and a hesnru friend from Lilnn'ieriee, Rizal wtnte about his class- iilates lll i'I-‘luniia'. “These friends are all stating; Inen1 Criniliis, n'iestixtisI and rhlflluji'fi! iiut we called nu rselves Filipinos. Almost all were edueated by the Jesuits. The .Tesui is have truly mi: wanted tet teach 13 THE lNDEPEN DENT RE‘t’lEW us love efeountry, but they have shown us all that is beautiful and all that is best.“ The indios' student life in Manila re- flected the transition from rural ethnic isolation to a large urban exposure en— hanced by college experience and the cos- mopolitan atmosphere of Manila. When the young graduates from Manila re- turned to their home province or town, they cut impressive figures. They made it a point to speak in Spanish, for to be— come like the Spaniards meant to be equal, if not supe- rior to, the colonial masters. The educated indios were in gen— eral liberal—minded and less religious. Because of their high visibility, and their critical and ar- ticulate voices in their local commu- nities, they curred the unmiti- gated wrath and even the harsh per- secution of the Spanish friars. ills guardians of the colo- nial state, the Spanish friars feared the growing number and influence of the educated indios. In Manila as well as in Spain, die in die stttdents and the professionals organized associations and published journals and newspapers, notably the short—lived Diarumg Thgnfog, Erpntio ett Filipinos and Lo Saturated. Eventually, the educated intlios found themselves branded by the Spanish friars as partitions rospecliosrts, or suSpicious characters infected with dan- gcrotts ideas. The pejoiative epithet ap- plied. to the educated indio was “filibus- in- lets," or in the words ill—DI. Rixal, “a Liana gc'rous patriot who will soon be hanged." Most of the indio clergy who functioned as co-adiutors perceived contradictions in their theological education. While they were taught that men were equal in the eyes of God, they saw the persistence of gross inequalities on earth. The emergence ofthe thinking indio Most of the indio clergy who func— tioned as co—adjutors perceived contra— dictions in their theological education. While flaey were taught that men were equal in. the eyes of God, dJey saw the persistence of gross inequalities on earth. This hitter resentment stemmed mainly from the unjust treatment from the Span- ish friars. The antipathy between the Spanish friars and the native clergy on one hand, and between the Spanish friars and .L.. ILIL educated indio on the other hand, had deeper roots and historic ante~ cedeots and tool; 1tariotts forms. This was exacerbated by the raneotous po- letnics of the Span- ish publicists and by the counterst- tacks of the indio iittstrados in Spain and Manila. Of course, the growing ten- sion was further fueled by M.H. del Pilar‘s “La Soberania Monaeal” and his other anti—friar writings, Gracianri Lop e2 Jaena’s "Fray Rated,” and Dr. Rizal’s im- mortal noyels Nair Me fingers and El Ft'ft'ltusterisaro. The Spanish friars wanted so much to keep the indios in their “rightful place." Fray Miguel I.. Bustarnante in 1385 wrote that all the indios needed roost in order “to enter the gates of heaven was to learn to pray, to plow the field, and to he obedient to the priest.” He added that for the eolonia] state to teach the indie the Castiiian language and give him a little education would he FEBRUARY I‘l'ita THE INDEPENDENT HEVIEW‘ a fatal mistake. lJI'. Rizal in his repartee reminded the women of Malolos that religion did not concern itself solely with " the recitation of kilotnetric prayers, kissing the hands of the parish priest, kneeling and wear- ing greasy scapularies." An alliance was forged between the native clergy and the lay educated indies, and there were ether clear and fearless signs that other la],r indies were taking up the cuilgcls for the much-maligned native clergy. Governadoreillos and principales rnart'hctl {111 the streets ofMa- nila in March 1883. Among their de— mands were the “suppression of the reli- gious orders and the secularization of the parishes.” 'I‘hey denounced the Spanish friars’ interference in the political affairs of the colonial state, the friars‘ greed for all kinds of Church fees, and their amassn‘ient ttfvast tract oflands in Ma- nila and elsewhere. The Spanish frailet‘racy found itself with a double—edged threat: the native clergy and the lay educated indies. The antipathy [if many Spanish friars toward the native clergy was personal and later FEBRUARY I99! degenerated into a racial phobia that drove a few native priests toward a seri- ous schism in the Catholic church dur- ing the early fimerican period. The anti—friar feelings among the lay educated indies and the native clergy converged in 1312, prodded and rein“- l'oreed by the webs of kinship am eng the native principalia. The Spaniards exacerbated the situ— ation by their desperation and growing insecurity. Well aware of the numerical superiority efthe indies, the Spaniards tried to keep the indies at bay through repressive measures such as arbitrary ar~ rests, imprisonment at Bilibid, depor‘ talions te outlying islands, death by gar— rate, and public executions. fill these were in addition to the old mechanics of control such as censorship of the press, keeping a vigilant eye on the "s us— pected indies,” and threats of excommu‘ nicatien. But by then, the Spanish colonial state’s attempt to turn back the clock to [ire—l 3'12 conditions was already ttit} late. The indie eiite's education was irrevets~ ible. In ...
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern