Final study guide - Roman Architecture Opus Incertum Wall...

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Roman Architecture: Opus Incertum: Wall using irregular shaped and random placed uncut stones or fist-sized tufa blocks inserted in a core of morter: the beginning of concrete. Opus Recticulum: Diagonal patterns of square stone and morter. Opus Testaceum: Built wall covered with baked bricks. This wall was very strong. Round Arch: Very strong! Holds weight of building on keystone. Arcade: series of arches side by side that is very stable because they are all pushing on each other.
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Bay: one of the arches in arcade. Used as shopping mall. Barrel Vault: Series of round arches in a row. Buttrice: Thicker part of wall on the sides. Groin Vault or cross vault: Series of barril vaults groin in 4 different directions. Give sense of space using for passage ways. Used more frequently in basilica type churches. Dome: Arch that you pive around central point.
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Drum wall: flying battruses wall, helps support dome. Oculus: open space on top of dome. Spandrome: space between roundness and squareness. Podium: often stepped at front, base for temples. Only entrance through stairs in front. Roundels: Round off-set spaces, often decorated with art (faces perhaps) Pilasters: partial columns joined to wall.
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The Roman Republic 200-27 BCE Demetrios the Syrian: Perfect just like greek statues, divine king, amazing general, ideas drawn from Alexander who had deep set eyes, tilted head, curly locks, ribbed nature. Republican Portraiture: verism, realistic, idealizing different set of values. Republican virtues are: a. Gravitas: seriusness b. Actoritas: Authority c. Pietas: Piety d. Virtus: Strenght. Virtues are those things that you gain with age and wisdom, authority figure. Men who have lived and seen a lot, very different notion of ideal man (head of household). Marius (110-86 BCE): Mostly recognized for army reforms. a. Changed way in which army was organized. b. Decided what army could carry and how they fought. c. Thought army how to fight. d. Controlling army in his own hands. Sulla (90-79BCE) a. Took over dictatorship in Rome. b. Controlled army in his own hands c. Took advantage of artistic rhetoric to show himself one citizen among many. d. Ideal head on regular body. Architecture Palestrina (100 BCE) Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia (goddess of luck!) a. Paid for by Sulla?
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b. Romans acting like king c. Ability for dramatic surprise (every level of sanctuary as surprise) Hellenistic Industry. d. Used of concrete really strong. e. New architectural forms like arches and barrel vaulting. f. External forms DO NOT reflect internal form. g. Romans using motions of Maskunst. Barbermini group (first century BC) a. Roman holding busts of ancestors. b. Greatest threat to Sulla because they’re a rich family. “Roman General”- East meets West a. Naked Greece Body (5 th Century) b. Ribbed c. Regular size head on top of shoulders Cicero (mid first century BCE) a. Wrote a lot of law speeches b. Lawyer c. Holds consul (official role) d. Very wealthy e.
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