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8 - Mitochondria and ATP synthesis

8 - Mitochondria and ATP synthesis - BME 418 Quantitative...

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BME 418, Quantitative Cell Biology Alan J. Hunt 8 - Electron Transport in Mitochondria, ATP synthase Now we turn to how ATP is synthesized in the Mitochondria: Matrix - Citric acid cycle enzymes, DNA, translation machinery Outer Membrane - pores allow molecules <5000 Dalton through (ATP), not proteins. Small molecules are in equilibrium with the cytoplasm. Inner Membrane - site of ATP synthesis Overview of biochemistry. Some of the high energy cellular fuels are produced by Glycolysis, which occurs outside the mitochondria in the cytosol: glucose and glycogen are broken down to pyruvate in a series of enzymatic steps that are coupled to the production of some ATP and NADH (reduced Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide). However, for most cells the majority of ATP is produced in the mitochondria, where pyruvate is converted to citric acid, and feeds into the Citric Acid Cycle . This cycle, which takes place in the matrix, produces more ATP and NADH, and an additional high- energy molecule, FADH 2 . The ATP produced by these processes is immediately useful, but what about the majority of the energy which is now stored in NADH and FADH 2 ?
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BME 418, Quantitative Cell Biology Alan J. Hunt
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BME 418, Quantitative Cell Biology Alan J. Hunt NADH is used as a source of energetic electrons that feed into an electron transport scheme reminiscent of that seen in chloroplasts. Once again, protons are pumped across the membrane, out of the matrix, and thus storing energy in the resulting electrochemical gradient. FADH2 is used in a similar manner.
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BME 418, Quantitative Cell Biology Alan J. Hunt This leaves one missing link in chemiosmotic hypothesis: how in the energy released as protons flow down their electrochemical gradient harnessed to produce ATP? This is
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