20ScalingSterilizationMicroBioreactors

20ScalingSterilizationMicroBioreactors - Scaling Area...

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Scaling 1 1 1 1 1 1/10 1/10 1/100 1/1000 1/100 1/1000 1/100 1/100 1/10,000 1,000,000 1/1000 1/1000 1/10 1/10 6 1/10 1/10 9 Area = (Length) 2 Volume = (Length) 3 Length Length Area Volume Area Volume Summary of Conventional Scaling Laws Dominate at small scale Dominate at large scale
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Microintuition Length scales involved Scaling laws (conditions) Scaling of different features Biological implication Value of Intuition Value of Intuition Ideas Ideas Approximations Approximations - More accuracy, more cost More accuracy, more cost First cut, Speed First cut, Speed Scaling Laws (rough approximations that often but not always work) How different physical magnitudes depend on the size of a system Isomorphic reduction all dimensions decrease uniformly Materials properties constant Strengths, Moduli, Densities, Friction, etc Classic continuum models No quantum effects, no atom-scale structures, no mean free path effect, surface effects.
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Fluid flow, Diffusion, and Mixing Surface-to-Volume 1:1 10 cm 2 : 10 mL 100:1 5X10 -3 cm 2 : 5X10 -5 mL
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Laminar Flows Laminar Flows Surface Surface Tension Tension Microfluidics Microfluidics Turbulent vs. Laminar flow Fluid at the microscale exhibits laminar flow Laminar flow is streamline and predictable Pipes Microchannels
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Problem for mixing in microbioreactors Flow is turbulent but, need agitation Dispersion (oxygen) Blending (substrate, pH-control) Suspension (sludge) Heat transfer (temperature control) Opportunity for Subcellular Studies Laminar flows, PARTCELL, and EGF signaling Mixing crucial in macrobioreactors too What is mixing? Mixing is achievement of uniformity Degree of mixing, m: ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) ( c c c t c m =
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Mixing at different scales No Turbulence Diffusion also slow Concentrations, Sensing Non-dilute, non-ideal, non- homogeneous, small volumes Intracellular events Autocrine Cell differentiation
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Macrovariables Concentration, Reaction rate, Diffusion, etc.
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