Grusky Reader.54 92 97

Grusky Reader.54 92 97 - Grusky Reader, 54, 92, 97 l54,...

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Grusky Reader, 54, 92, 97 l 54, MacLeod, Ain’t No Makin’ It ¡ Outcomes & seen as due to differences in ability, motivation, and will to work ¡ Story of Horatio Alger ± reinforces the possibility of the American Dream ¡ Some believe that education will have a payoff; others do not ± why? l Most remain within the working-class l Chance of mobility very small ± leads to hopelessness
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l Experience of being unemployed, undereducated from imprisoned parents, older l Low aspirations among boys author studied l Job expectations or aspirations P in construction, factories, military, professional sports l ±eer groups – Hallway Hangers (white boys) vs. Brothers (Black youths) ¡ Brothers more optimistic about future than Hallway Hangers
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l Difference between aspirations and expectations P latter takes constraints into account (530) l Hallway Hangers – cynical about their future ¡ Crushed aspirations ¡ boring, undifferentiated, and unrewarding ” (530) ¡ Opportunity structure defines aspirations ¡ Inconsistent work ¡ Do not have low perceptions of their abilities ¡ Rather, low aspirations from evaluation of the job opportunity structure
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l Idea of meritocracy and mobility in the U.S. ? goes counter to their experience (neighbors, family, and own in the labor market) l Insular community, surrounded by others like them l Family members- industrious, intelligent, hard working & but remain unemployed or are in unstable jobs ± youths perceive job structure as closed l Hallway Hangers P in menial, dead-end jobs l Conscious of class-based obstacles l Negative reputation of the neighborhood
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Grusky Reader.54 92 97 - Grusky Reader, 54, 92, 97 l54,...

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