Test__2_Study_Guide - MGT 325 Test#2 Study Guide Chapter 6...

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MGT 325 Test #2 Study Guide Chapter 6 -- Motivation Concepts (18 questions) Maslow’s Hierarchy Hierarchy of needs Theory Definition Abraham Maslow thought there existed a hierarchy of needs with each indiv. 1. Lower Needs- physiological needs 2. Higher-Order needs- social esteem and self-actualization According to Maslow, you need to understand what level of the hierarchy that a person is currently on and focus on satisfying the needs. 1. Psychological Includes hunger, thirst, shelter, sex and other bodily needs 2. Safety Security & protection from physical & emotional harm. 3. Social Affection, belongingness, acceptance & friendship 4. Esteem Internal factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement & external factors like status, recognition, & attention 5. Self-Actualization Drive to become what one is capable of becoming, includes growth, achieving one’s potential, and self- fulfillment. ERG Theory ERG theory 3 groups of core needs Can be focused on simultaneously, unlike Maslow’s hierarchy 1. Existence Similar to Maslow’s Safety needs 2. Relatedness Similar to Maslow’s social & status needs 3. Growth Similar to Maslow’s esteem & self-actualization Theory X & Y Theory X & Theory Y Theory X Managers believe that employees inherently dislike work and must be coerced in performing it. Theory Y Managers assume that employees can view work as natural, rest, or play, therefore accept responsibility. McClelland’s learned Needs Theory McClelland’s Theory of Needs Definition Focusses on 3 needs Need for Achievement (nAch) Drive to excel and succeed Prefer 50/50 chances Don’t like gambling with high odds.
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Prefer high degree of responsibility and feedback Prefer moderate risk Motivated by personal achievement not by others Need for power (nPow) Making people behave in a way that they normally wouldn’t. A need for Managerial success Need for Affiliation (nAff) Desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships Successful managers have a low need for affiliation Hertzberg’s 2-Factor Theory Two Factor Theory One’s attitude toward work determines success or failure. Intrinsic factors seem to be related to job satisfaction. 4. Those who feel good about work attribute these factors to themselves Frederick Herzberg Criticism of the Two-Factor Theory 1. Limited by Methodology 2. Unreliable Methodology 3. No overall measure of satisfaction 4. Only assumed link between satisfaction & productivity 1. Attributing success to one’s self, and failure to extrinsic factors 2. May contaminate findings by interpreting 2 identical responses differently 3. One may dislike part of a job, but still like the job as a whole
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4. Assuming strong relationship btwn the two. Goal Setting Theory/MBO Goal Setting Theory Definition Specific and difficult goals with feedback lead to higher performance.
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