Experiment One - Experiment One A Cis to Trans Conversion...

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Experiment One: A Cis to Trans Conversion Stephanie Bruno 20313719 Partner: Shireen Misri T.A: Jong Leu Lab Section: 006 Date Due: February 3, 2009
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Introduction: Compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons. (Petrucci, 2007) Hydrocarbon molecules with one or more double bonds between carbon atoms are called alkenes. (Petrucci, 2007) A double bond is stronger than a single bond because a double bond consists of a pi and a sigma bond and a single bond only consists of a sigma bond. The pi and sigma bond together are stronger then just the sigma bond alone. (Hill, 2000) Alkenes are more reactive then alkanes (only contain single bonds between carbons) because alkenes are unsaturated, which means that since they have a double bond, it is reactive. (France, 2008) Alkenes can have stereo-isomers, which are molecules that have the same molecular formula, but different arrangements of atom in space. (Petrucci, 2007) Stereo- isomerism has a type of isomer called a geometric isomer. There are two types of geometric isomers, which are cis and trans isomers. These isomers differ in physical properties, but have the same chemical properties. (Saunders, 2009) Intermolecular forces, such as London Dispersion, dipole-dipole interaction and hydrogen bonding, affect the melting and boiling points of a substance. Intramolecular forces are forces that affect the solubility of a substance, such as covalent bonds. London Dispersion forces are the displacement of electrons caused by a non polar atom become momentarily polar, known as an instanteous dipole, which then induces the neighboring molecule, this is known as an induced dipole. Cis and trans isomers have different intermolecular forces because the structures are arranged differently, which will affect the melting and boiling point. Tran isomers are arranged to have more effective packing of the molecules, which increases the number of London Dispersion forces and makes them stronger and require more energy to break. This increases the melting point and boiling point. The solubility in water is affected by the intramolecular forces and also depends on the polarity of the solute. Cis isomer structures and water are both polar so cis isomers will be soluble in water. Experimental Procedure: The experimental procedures used for this experiment was outlined in the CHEM 123L laboratory manual, Experiment: A cis to trans conversion, on pages 9 and 14. All steps were followed without deviation. (Stathopulous, 2009) Experimental Observation: Solubility Melting Points (˚C) Initial Weight (grams) Final Weight (grams) Apperance Maleic Anhydride - - 8.41 - White chunks Maleic Acid Most of the acid dissolved 125.5 - 3.80 Solid white substance, no crystals Fumaric Acid Did not dissolve (sat at bottom) >150 - 2.62 White, very fine crystals
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Discussion:
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