Compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons.
Hydrocarbon molecules with one or more double bonds between carbon
atoms are called alkenes. (Petrucci, 2007)
A double bond is stronger than a single bond
because a double bond consists of a pi and a sigma bond and a single bond only consists
a sigma bond.
The pi and sigma bond together are stronger then just the sigma bond
Alkenes are more reactive then alkanes (only contain single bonds
between carbons) because alkenes are unsaturated, which means that since they have a
double bond, it is reactive. (France, 2008)
Alkenes can have stereo-isomers, which are molecules that have the same
molecular formula, but different arrangements of atom in space. (Petrucci, 2007)
isomerism has a type of isomer called a geometric isomer. There are two types of
geometric isomers, which are cis and trans isomers.
These isomers differ in physical
properties, but have the same chemical properties. (Saunders, 2009)
forces, such as London Dispersion, dipole-dipole interaction and hydrogen bonding,
affect the melting and boiling points of a substance.
Intramolecular forces are forces that affect the solubility of a substance, such as
London Dispersion forces are the displacement of electrons caused by a
non polar atom become momentarily polar, known as an instanteous dipole, which then
induces the neighboring molecule, this is known as an induced dipole. Cis and trans
isomers have different intermolecular forces because the structures are arranged
differently, which will affect the melting and boiling point. Tran isomers are arranged to
have more effective packing of the molecules, which increases the number of London
Dispersion forces and makes them stronger and require more energy to break. This
increases the melting point and boiling point. The solubility in water is affected by the
intramolecular forces and also depends on the polarity of the solute. Cis isomer structures
and water are both polar so cis isomers will be soluble in water.
The experimental procedures used for this experiment was
outlined in the CHEM 123L laboratory manual, Experiment: A
on pages 9 and 14. All steps were followed without deviation. (Stathopulous, 2009)
Most of the