Fall 1978 Exam - r'th-Getoher 13*1 flame-fl,flhodes ease...

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Unformatted text preview: r'th-Getoher 13 *1 flame -fl,flhodes ease Tlfltfi - Astronomy lflfl Exam Number ea ‘ 1 First Midterm Exam 3. -\. .I' .I' %nj Ihich of the following was not a Babylonian contribution to astronomy? 1. the sundial 2. star catalogs 3. records of planetarv motions h. a lunar calendar 5. astrology Which of the following ancient cultures developed a calendar based not upon the moon, but instead upon the star Sirius? l. the Havens t. the Chinese 3. the Bahvlonains H. the Polynesians 5. the Egyptians During each year the sun appears to travel about the stars in a path called the ecliptic. Which of the following sequences correctly describes the sun's motion during each year (beginning in January}? '1‘ 1. autumnal equinox, winter solstice, vernal equinox, summer solstice 2. vernal equinox. summer solsticeI winter solstice, autumnal equinox 3. summer solstice. vernal equinox, autumnal equinox, winter solstice u. vernal equinox, summer solsticeI autumnal equinox, winter solstice 5. none of the above - The seasons are caused hp: 1. variations in the sun's luminosity 2. the rotation of the earth 3. the ehliquitv of the ecliptic h. the changing distance of the earth from the sun 5. precessien The signs of the Zodiac are: 1. twenty—four constellations around the shy centered on the ecliptic 2. twelve constellations around the sky. centered on the ecliptic 3. twelve equal divisiona along the eclipticI starting from the Vernal Equinox h. twelve equal divisions along the ecliptic, starting from the constellation of Ares _ E. twelve equal-divisions of the equator The earth rotates about its axis: 1. once every solar day a 2. once every sidereal day 3. toward Hawaii H. hecaufie the sun does not 5. because of the seasons which of the following does not belong? . signs - 2. Eodiac 3. eeleetial pole H. houses 5. horoscope E: Ptolemy introduced epieyeles in his cosmology to deserihe the ' motions of the planets. In particular, the epioyeles were intended l to aeeount for: 1. the ehanging distances of the planets from the sun 2. the phases that the planets are observed to pass through when observed through a telescope 3. the axial rotations of the planets s. the angular diameters of the planets 5. the retrograde motions of the planets. 9. en annular eelipse of the sun is observed: 1. from outside the eclipse path 2. from a point on the eelipse path, but when the moonTe shadow doesn't quite reach the earth 3- when the moon isn*t quite at the new phase while the eelipse oooure H. from a point on the eclipse path where the moon's shadow falls directly on the earth 5. once a year 10. Hipparehus discovered precession inthe 2nd Century B.C. Preeession refers to: l. the progression of seasons 2. the exact length of the-year 3. a slow eonieal motion of the axis ef.the earth u. the gradual slowing of the earth‘s rotation 5. the parade of the planets in the'night sky 11. Tyoho Erahe obtained more thorough observations of Mars than any other-p1anet heeauee: l. Hare is the planet that comes nearest the earth of any planet 2. Mars, unlike the -inner planets, can sometimes be up all night, and yet moses faster in the sky [against the background of stars] than any other "outer = planet 3. Here is most like the earth in its rotation period, seasons, polar eaps, and atmosphere #. tyoho was born under the sign of Mars, and had a special interest in it 5. he was ordered by the King to spend most of his time on Hare. 12. The moon rotates: 1. not at all 2. in sueh a way as to keep-its dark side turned away from the earth 3. once during its revolution around the earth 4. once a year _J 5. about an axis pointed almost exactly toward the earth 13. The faot that Venus goes through all phases, as does the moon, when considered in light of its observed motion in the sky, provides evidence that it must: 1. revolve around the sun 2. revolve around the earth 3. rotate on its axis u. reyolyes on an epieyole whose oentEr is always halfway between the earth and sun 5. haee a moon of its own -.1ef Who made the first laboratory experiments with falling bodies which _formed the basis of mechanics: 1. Newton 2. Kepler E. Einstein e. Planck 5. Galileo 15. Which of the following sequences of terms correctly describes Kepler's three laws: 1. area, ellipse, harmonic 2. harmonic, area, ellipse 3. ellipse, harmonic, area 4. ellipse, area, harmonic 5. none of these 15. Which of the following astronomers or physicists first showed that light has a finite speed? 1. Aristarchus 2. Newton 3. Galileo H. Roemer 5. Einstein 1?. Galileo believed in which of the following systems of cosmology? l. the Ptolemaic 2. Tycho Erahe's 3. the Copernican u. the geocentric 5. none of these 13. Galileo determined that the sun rotates on its axis by: l. photographing its spectrum and noting the Doppler shift of its spectral lines _ 1 2. calculating the rotation rate from the distance and revolution period of the earth 3. calculating the rotation rate period of Hercury H. observing the flow patterns of its surface gases 5. watching sunspots appear to move across its disc ideas was not part of the Eopernican System from the distance and revolution 19. Which of the following of cosmology? 1. elliptical orbits 2. epicycles 3. uniform circular motion a. rotation of the earth , 5. a sphere of fixed stars similar to Ptolemy's e following quantities made ?E. The lack of observations of one of th he Earth was stationary. Which hoth Aristotle and Erahe state that t one was it? 1. precession E. retrograde motion 3. stellar parallax e. solar eclipses 5. nonuniform motion of the planets ' £12.” 22. 23. 2h. 25. EE. 2?. Which of the following lists is in correct chronological order: 1. Ptolemy, Aristotle, Kepler, Copernicus, Erahe 2. Aristotle, Ptolemy, Galileo, Copernicus, Kepler 3. Aristotle, Hipparchus, Erahe, Copernicus, Newton 4. Aristotle, Ptolemy, Copernicus, Erahe, Kepler 5. Ptolemy, Aristotle, Brahe, Newton, Galileo The following are the steps of the scientific method as discussed in class. a} hypothesis is tested by predicting observable consequences and then obtaining new observations b} observations are made. collected together, and studied for clues c1 hypothesis is formed d1 hypothesis is revised if necessary and the cycle is repeated Which of the following is the correct sequence of these steps? 1. a,b,o,d E. c,b,a,d 3. o,b,d,a a. b,c,a,d 5H b,c,d,a Which of the following statements about Newton's Law of Gravitation is not correct? 1. the force is proportional to a universal constant 2. the force is proportional to both masses involved 3. the force is an inverse square law force H. the force is directed toward both bodies 5 the force is directed at right angles to the line joining the bodies By inertia, we mean the tendency of material object to remain at rest.. 1. and to come to rest if set in motion 2. or to move 3. or to move in a straight line at constant speed H. or to accelerate Which best defines the term 11perturbation“ as it is used by astronomers? 1. an inaccuracy in the lav of gravitation E. a small motion that is unexplained by gravitation 3. an observational error e. a small deviation from motion in an ellipse Which one of the following is not due to gravitation? The force that: 1. holds the moon-" in its orbit 2. holds atoms and molecules together 3. holds the earth together H. holds the solar system together Which of the following sequences correctly gives the order of the electromagnetic Spectrum in order of increasing wavelength? 1- gamma~rfir. visible. s-ray. infrared, ultraviolet, radio 2. gamma-ray, x-ray, visible, infrared, ultraviolet, radio 3. gamma—ray, nuray, ultraviolet, visible, radio, infrared u- s-ray, gamma-ray, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, radio 5. gamma-ray, x-ray, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, radio is} 29. EU. 31. 32. 33. EU. figich of the following phenomena is not evidence for the wave nature o light? 1. interference i. diffraction a. photoelectric effect h. refraction Four stars are moving with the following velocities: 1} lflfl kaisec toward earth, 2] lfls kmfsec away from earth, 3} BED hmfsec away from earth, a} EDD kmfsec toward earth. Which of these stars will here its Spectral lines Shifted farthest to the red when compared to your laboratory spectrum? 1. star 1 2. star 2 a. star 3 #. star H When light passes from one substance into another1r it can: 1. pass through the second substance 2. be absorbed by that substance 3. be reflected by the second substance “- have all of the above take place 5. have none of the above take place which of the following types of telescopes is based upon the principle of reflection? l. a reflector 2. a refractor a. a radio telescope u. both 1 and 2 above 5. both 1 and 3 above The 1ar est reflecting telescope is approximately how many times larger hen the largest refractor? l. the same size 2. three times 3. six times u. eight times 5. none of the above In which of the following types of telescopes does the observer hagefito ride in a cage or wooh'near the upper end of the telescope to e. l. ooude 2. eassegrain 3. Newtonian H. prime focus 5. both 3 and H above A large Schmidt telescope such as Palomar*s HB—inch Schmidt, is well suited for a photographic survey of the sky because: 1. it does not need an equatorial mount 2. it has the largest light-gathering power of any telescope in the world , 3. it can be used with enormous magnifying power u. it utilizes no reflecting surfaces 5. it has a large field of View with moderately good scale and good definition is: 35. 3?. 33. 39. ”U. flhich of the following does not apply to a Black Body? I; the amount of energy emitted depends very strongly upon its temperature 2. the amount of energy emitted depends upon its size 3. the amount of energy radiated exceeds the amount of energy it absorbs from its surroundings H. a black body at room temperature radiates mostly in the infrared part of the spectrum 5. a hot black body will appear to be bluer than a cool one Using either groundrhaaed telescopes or orbiting telescopes a team of astronomers has observed the following stars: 1; a star that appears blue 23 a star that appears brightest in the ultraviolet e. a red star h. an infrared star 5. a yellow star Which of these stars is intrinsically the hottest? Which of the following effects cannot be caused either by the absorption or emission of photons or by collisions? 1. recombination 2. diffraction 3. excitation u. ionisation 5. de-excitation Who developed the rules of spectral analysis which astronomers and physicists use to determine the sources of continuous. omiEEiUn. and absorption spectra? 1. Newton 2. Frauhhofer 3. Balmer H. Kirchhoff 5. none of these above Which of the following is correct: 1. Fraunhofer analysed sunlight and found a continuous spectrum having no lines . 2. Kirchhoff analysed sunlight and found no lines 3. Fraunhofer analyzed sunlight and found dark lines in the spectrum e. Kirchhoff had not heard of fraunhofer, but worked independently 5. Neither Fraunhofer nor Kirchhoff analysed sunlight1| hut looked instead only at laboratory spectra The atomic number of an atom1r which determines the type of element of that atom, is determined by the number of: 1. neutrons 2. protons 3. electrons u. neutrinos 5. positrone in its nucleus ...
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