Ch_322a_4.01 - Chapter 4 Alkanes and Cycloalkanes...

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Alkanes and Cycloalkanes Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons meaning they have the maximum number of hydrogens for the carbon number. Alkanes have the general formula C n H 2n+2 . Cycloalkanes are cyclic structures with the carbon atoms in a ring. Although cycloalkanes are saturated hydrocarbons, the general formula is C n H 2n because two hydrogens are lost when a C-C bond is made to form a ring. CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 hexane C 6 H 14 cyclohexane C 6 H 12 Chapter 4 Alkanes and Cycloalkanes: Conformations of Molecules
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Sources of Alkanes: Petroleum and Natural Gas Petroleum is the source of alkanes. It is a complex mixture of mostly alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons with smaller amounts of oxygen-, nitrogen-, and sulfur-containing compounds. Natural gas is a gaseous mixture of hydrocarbons recovered from natural sources. It is mostly methane (CH 4 , BP -162 o C) with small amounts of ethane (C 2 H 6 , BP -88 o C) and propane (C 3 H 8 , BP -42 o ). Petroleum Refining Liquid petroleum and natural gas are usually separated at the wellhead and shipped independently to processing (refining) plants. The liquid petroleum (crude) is separated by distillation according to the volatility (BPs) of the different size hydrocarbons. The fractions collected by refining are still mixtures of hydrocarbons that have commercial value.
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Hydrocarbon Fractions from Petroleum boiling range of fraction ( o C) size range name and use below 20 C 1 to C 4 natural gas, bottled gas, petrochemicals 20 to 60 C 5 to C 6 petroleum "ether".
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