CH 2 Outline - Chemical Foundations for Cells Chapter 2 You...

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Chemical Foundations for Cells Chapter 2
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You are chemical, and so is every living and nonliving thing in the universe.
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Elements Fundamental forms of matter Can’t be broken apart by normal means 92 occur naturally on Earth 0
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Most Common Elements in Living Organisms Oxygen • Hydrogen • Carbon • Nitrogen 0
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What Are Atoms? Smallest particles that retain properties of an element Made up of subatomic particles: Protons (+) Electrons (-) Neutrons (no charge) 0
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Hydrogen Helium electron proton neutron Examples of Atoms 0
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Atomic Number Number of protons All atoms of an element have the same atomic number Atomic number of hydrogen=1 Atomic number of carbon=6 0
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Mass Number Number of protons + Number of neutrons Isotopes vary in mass number 0
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Isotopes Atoms of an element with different numbers of neutrons (different mass numbers) Carbon 12 has 6 protons, 6 neutrons Carbon 14 has 6 protons, 8 neutrons 0
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Good Exam Question: Fill in the blanks with values Atom Atomic # # of protons # of electrons # outer-shell electrons Hydrogen 1 1 1 1 Nitrogen 7 7 Carbon 6
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Radioisotopes Have an unstable nuclues that emits energy and particles Radioactive decay transforms radioisotope into a different element Decay occurs at a fixed rate 0
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Uses of Radioisotopes Tracers Thyroid scan PET scan Radiation therapy Drive artificial pacemaker normal thyroid scan enlarged thyroid 0
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What Determines whether Atoms Will Interact? The number and arrangement of their electrons 0
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Electrons Carry a negative charge Repel one another Are attracted to protons in the nucleus Move in orbitals – volumes of space that surround the nucleus Z X When all p orbitals are full y 0
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Electron Orbitals
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