CH 3 Fall 08 - Biological Molecules Chapter 3 Importance of...

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Biological Molecules Chapter 3
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Importance of Carbon Carbon Permeates the world of life-from the energy-requiring activities and structural organization of cells, to physical and chemical conditions that span the globe and influence ecosystems… It is Everywhere
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Carbon’s Bonding Behavior Outer shell that has 4 electrons Each carbon atom can form covalent bonds with up to 4 atoms
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Methane: Simplest Organic Compound H H H H C Space filling model Structural formula Ball and stick model
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Most Biological Molecules are Carbon Based Versatility: forms 4 covalent bonds Organic molecules = C + H Only made by living things
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Humans and Global Warming Fossil fuels are rich in carbon Use of fossil fuels releases co2 into atmosphere Increased co2 may contribute to global warming
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Organic Compounds Hydrogen and other elements (listed below) covalently bonded to carbon -Carbohydrates -Lipids -Proteins -Nucleic acids
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Bonding Arrangements Carbon atoms can from chains or rings Other atoms project from the carbon backbone Glucose Ball and stick
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Hemoglobin Molecular Models Space filling model Ball and stick Ribbon model
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Atoms or clusters of atoms that are covalently bonded to carbon backbone Give organic compounds their different properties Organic vs. Inorganic in Chemistry Organic refers to molecules containing a carbon skeleton Inorganic refers to carbon dioxide and all molecules without carbon Functional Groups
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Examples of Functional Groups Methyl group -CH3 Hydroxyl group -OH Amino group -NH3+ Carboxyl group -COOH Phosphate group -PO3- Sulfhydryl group -SH
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How Are Organic Molecules Synthesized?
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Organic molecules in ALL living orgs share two similarities 1. Use same functional groups 2. Formed by the modular approach -Stick subunits together like cars in train Monomer Single unit Dimer Double Polymer Many
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  • Spring '08
  • Minor
  • Fatty Acids, lys val lys, val lys lys

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