CH 10 - Chapter 10 Gene Expression and Regulation 0...

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Chapter 10: Gene Expression and Regulation 0
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Marvelous Mussel Adhesive Marine mussel (mytilus californicus) manufactures ultimate underwater adhesive. Called “byssus”: specialized type of protein Mussel binds itself to rocks w/ threads coated with byssus. Gene for byssus has been put into yeast Yeast synthesize the protein based on the instructions in the mussel DNA. So how can we remove the gene from 1 organism and have it expressed in a completely different organism? 0
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Same 2 steps produce all protiens: 1) DNA is “transcrbed” to form RNA. occurs in the nucleus. RNA moves into the cytoplasm. 2) RNA is “translated” to form polypeptide chains, which fold to form proteins Steps from DNA to Proteins “Central Dogma of Molecular Biology” 0 DNA Proteins RNA Transcri ption Tran slatio n
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The Linkage Between DNA and Protein DNA contains the molecular blueprint of every cell Proteins are the “molecular workers” of the cell Proteins control cell shape, function, reproduction, and synthesis of biomolecules The information in DNA genes must therefore be linked to the proteins that run the cell
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How Are Genes and Proteins Related? Gene: segment of DNA located at a particular place on a chromosome DNA can code for: 1. A specific amino acid sequence in a protein 2. The RNA to help make proteins Gene → Protein or RNA to make protein 0
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Most Genes Contain the Information for the Synthesis of a Single Protein Synthesis of new molecules inside the cell occurs through biochemical pathways Each step in a biochemical pathway is catalyzed by a protein enzyme George Beadle and Edward Tatum showed that “one DNA gene encodes the information for one enzyme (protein) in a biochemical pathway”
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Supplements Added to Medium none Normal Neurospora ornithine enzyme 1 gene B gene A enzyme 2 arginine amino acid needed in protein synthesis citrulline Growth characteristics of normal and mutant Neurospora on simple medium with different supplements show that defects in a single gene lead to defects in a single enzyme. The biochemical pathway for synthesis of the amino acid arginine involves two steps, each catalyzed by a different enzyme. Normal Neurospora can synthesize arginine, citrulline, and ornithine. Conclusions Mutant A grows only if arginine is added. It cannot synthesize arginine because it
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CH 10 - Chapter 10 Gene Expression and Regulation 0...

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