CH 13_student_outline - 0 Biotechnology Chapter 13...

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Biotechnology Chapter 13 0
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Biotechnology is applied biology Modern focus on genetic engineering, recombinant DNA technology, and analysis of biomolecules Traditional (historical) applications of biotechnology date back to over 10,000 years ago Use of yeast to produce beer and wine in Egypt and Near East Selective breeding of plants and animals Biotechnology
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Genetic Engineering 0 Genetic engineering refers to the modification of genetic material to achieve specific goals Major goals of genetic engineering Learn more about cellular processes, including inheritance and gene expression Provides better understanding and treatment of diseases, particularly genetic disorders Generate economic and social benefits through production of valuable biomolecules and improved plants and animals for agriculture
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Genes are isolated, modified, and inserted into an organism Made possible by recombinant technology Cut DNA up and recombine pieces Amplify modified pieces Various techniques used to accomplish this Modified animals are called transgenic or genetically modified organisms (GMOs) Recombinant DNA
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Discovery of Restriction Enzymes Hamilton Smith was studying how Haemophilus influenzae defend themselves from bacteriophage attack Discovered bacteria have an enzyme that chops up viral DNA 0
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Specificity of Cuts R estriction enzymes cut DNA at a specific sequence Number of cuts made in DNA will depend on number of times the “target” sequence occurs For example: 5’-ATT ѵ AAT-3’ The “diamond” symbol indicates where the cut is made Recognize “palindromic” sequences 0
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5’-CGGGCGCATTAATCCCATTAATGCG-3’ 5’-CGGGCGC ATTAAT CCC ATTAAT GCG-3’ 5’-CGGGCGC ATT AAT CCC ATT AAT GCG-3’ Cut DNA with Eco RI restriction enzyme 0 In linear DNA, 2 restriction sites present will cut the DNA into 3 fragments
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Making Recombinant DNA 5’ 3’ G C T T A A A A T T C G G A A T T C C T T A A G 3’ 5’ one DNA fragment another DNA fragment 3’ 5’ 0
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Making Recombinant DNA nick 5’ 3’ 3’ 5’ G A A T T C C T T A A G nick G A A T T C C T T A A G DNA ligase action 0
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Using Plasmids Plasmid is small circle of bacterial DNA Foreign DNA can be inserted into plasmid Forms recombinant plasmids Plasmid is a cloning vector Can deliver DNA into another cell 0
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Using Plasmids DNA fragments + enzymes recombinant plasmids host cells containing recombinant plasmids 0
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