Final Review

Final Review - Review Materials for the Final Exam (not...

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Unformatted text preview: Review Materials for the Final Exam (not cumulative) on CH 12 (2 nd half), CH 13, and CH 14 Use the web site below for review questions: http://wps.prenhall.com/esm_audesirk_bloe_7/1,8753,1139971,.html CH 12 (second half) CH 12 (second half) PICTURES PICTURES Karyotype.swf (use Apple Quicktime to open and view) Complete Linkage x AB ab 50% AB 50% ab All AaBb meiosis, gamete formation Parents: F 1 offspring: Equal ratios of two types of gametes: A B a b A B a b a b A B Incomplete Linkage Parents: F 1 offspring: Unequal ratios of four types of gametes: All AaCc x meiosis, gamete formation AC ac A C A C A C a c a c A c a C a c 85% parental genotypes 15% recombinant genotypes Crossover Frequency • Proportional to the distance that separates genes A B C D Pedigree Symbols Pedigree for Polydactyly I II III IV V 5,5 6,6 5,5 6,6 5,5 6,6 5,5 6,6 5,5 6,6 5,5 6,6 6,6 5,5 6,6 5,5 5,6 6,7 6,6 6,6 male female Black = # fingers Blue = # toes Autosomal Recessive Inheritance Patterns • If parents are both heterozygous, child will have a 25% chance of being affected Autosomal recessive.swf (use Apple Quicktime to open and view) Galactosemia • Caused by autosomal recessive allele • Gene specifies a mutant enzyme in the pathway that breaks down lactose • So, can’t convert lactose completely = problems galactose-1- phosphate enzyme 2 lactose galactose enzyme 1 + glucose glucose-1- phosphate enzyme 3 intermediate in glycolysis Autosomal Dominant Inheritance • Trait typically appears in every generation • If one parent is heterozygous (diseased), child will have a 50% chance of being affected Autosomal dominant.swf (use Apple Quicktime to open and view) X-Linked Recessive Inheritance • Males show disorder more than females • Son cannot inherit disorder from his father (why?) X-linked recessive.swf (use Apple Quicktime to open and view) XY XX = disease allele = diseased phenotype = male = female Types of disease transmission X X XY marries P 1 F 1 X X X XX X Y Y F 2 Results depend on which 2 individuals mate X X marries P 1 F 1 X X X XX X Y Y F 2 XY X X XX X Y XY X X marries P 1 F 1 X X Y Y F 2 XY XX X Y XY XX X X X X XY marries P 1 F 1 X XX X Y Y F 2 Results depend on which 2 individuals mate X X X X Duplication normal chromosome one segment repeated three repeats Duplication.swf (use Apple Quicktime to open and view) Inversion segments G, H, I become inverted Inversion.swf (use Apple Quicktime to open and view) In-text figure Page 206 Translocation one chromosome a nonhomologous chromosome nonreciprocal translocation Translocation.swf (use Apple Quicktime to open and view) Deletion Deletion.swf (use Apple Quicktime to open and view) chromosome alignments at metaphase I nondisjunctio n at anaphase I alignments at metaphase II anaphase II n + 1 n + 1 n- 1 n- 1 gametes Nondisjunction incidence per 1,000 births 20 15 10 5 20 25 30 35 40 45 mother's age 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 XX XX O XX O O XX Y Y X X x x x x XXY XXX...
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This note was uploaded on 03/03/2009 for the course BIOL 1001 taught by Professor Minor during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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Final Review - Review Materials for the Final Exam (not...

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