PHL 303 Final Review Questions

PHL 303 Final Review Questions - PHL 303 Final Review...

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PHL 303 Final Review Questions 1) How is resisting instincts a symptom of decline in Nietzsche? a. N: Nothing has preoccupied me more profoundly than the problem of decadence—I had reasons. "Good and evil" is merely a variation of that problem. Once one has developed a keen eve for the symptoms of decline , one understands morality, too—one understands what is hiding under its most sacred names and value formulas: impoverished life, the will to the end, the great weariness. Morality negates life. b. This critique of DECADENCE shown in example – man who knows the value of health when he is sick cannot fail to recognize philosophical value of sickness itself (without which health would be unable to achieve self-consciousness) c. N: A long, all too long, series of years signifies recovery for me; unfortunately it also signifies relapse. decay, the periodicity of a kind of decadence. Need I say after all this that in questions of decadence I am experienced? I have spelled them forward and backward .... Looking from the perspective of the sick toward healthier concepts and values and, conversely, looking again from the fullness and self- assurance of a rich life down into the secret work of the instinct of decadence—in this I have the longest training, my truest experience. . . . Now I know how, have the know-how, to reverse perspectives: the first reason why a "revaluation of values" is perhaps possible for me alone. d. This does not mean, however, that all music is decadent. As pointed out earlier, for Nietzsche decadence is a question of "will" and an "ideal," not decline as such (a fact of life that would be cowardly to deny) but acceptance and promotion of decline . Even within the overwhelmingly decadent context of modernity, Nietzsche recognizes the possibility of a music "that would no longer be of romantic origin, like German music—but Dionysian."76 The first section of The Case of Wagner offers an example: Bizet's Carmen, conceived as an absolute counterpart of Wagnerian decadence. If we reverse the terms of Nietzsche's characterization of Bizet, we obtain in a concentrated form his main arguments against Wagner. 2) What is Nietzsche’s evaluation of the equation: reason=virtue=happiness? a. His evaluation is that the equation confuses cause with effect. Suppose the cause is some form of happiness in denial, or a person denying themselves of a certain pleasure. Asceticism is the effect, rather than the cause is N’s theory. To affirm struggles, pain accompanies worthwhile achievements b. Socrates (symptomatic of an impending decline). Early civilizations (like the Greek civ) are healthy when the happiness of its people is the product of instinct. Socrates recognized a sickness in himself when he contained bad cravings within him but he claimed to have mastered the cravings by using REASON as a tool of control. His formula was reason = virtue = happiness.
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