HIST FINAL - FINALEXAM 1.

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FINAL EXAM 1. Write an essay about the modern American presidency. Your essay should note the hallmarks of the modern American presidency as identified by Professor Lewis Gould. In your essay, you should discuss at least three American presidents who served between 1896 and 1999 to show how each contributed to the development of the “modern American presidency.” In the first chapter of The Modern American Presidency, Gould depicts how the presidency and political parties were viewed for most of the 19 th Century. - barely any staff - the president worked with about 6 people and his secretary to handle the nation’s business - the media wasn’t really allowed to do much - more like “a fellow citizen” in the white house - there wasn’t much threat to them, no one felt the need to (minus extreme cases) - presidency was seen as equal to congress - party systems were huge since before the Civil War, the electorate was more involved with partisan affairs, Gould believes these parties gave the president stricter guidelines to follow, and go within limits of existing partisan procedures, but due to progressive era’s reforms (bosses, caucuses, patronage seemed inefficient – went to direct primary, referendum, and regulatory agency) the party system declined and presidents were given more freedom on how to act - the phonograph, radio, newspapers with photos all emerging and improving technology started to change how readers experienced news, which in turn changed how presidents would behave – it had a corrupting influence on leadership in the white house acc to Gould o a lot of stuff we hear abt now is too personal to the public, we view stardom as something great as Americans, which imbalances our focus on what we should be caring about (president’s efficiency etc) o adds to continuous campaigning- only seems important to Gould, but it is not; if a president just does his job right, that itself campaigns Modern American Presidency (acc to Gould): decline of party system increasing role of media, bureaucratic procedures to handle interact with the press (greater access to and more dependence on) growth of white house staff, exec branch chief of staff to manage white house staff formalized relations with congress newsmaker/ agenda setter/ public educator / celebrity less productive, not able to handle problems like before greater power for president as commander in chief (and abusing this power has increased) some of it comes from Calvin Coolidge’s “shrewd use of radio,” frequent press conferences, and his cultivation of Hollywood and other celebs continuous campaigning, more national and international travel to build political support 1. William McKinley - Republican, elected in 1896 - Travelling internationally o To create popular support for his policy initiatives o To inform people about expansionist policies after the War with Spain in 1898 and that it was US’s right and duty o Made several speaking tours first few months of office
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HIST FINAL - FINALEXAM 1.

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