MGMT 4070 Chapter 4 Study Guide - NOTES 16 Feb 2008...

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NOTES 16 Feb 2008 International Operations: Cultural Context Opening Profile: “On Keeping One’s Foot Safely Out of One’s Mouth” This article describes the cross-cultural communication and negotiation blunders and experiences of a businessman abroad. Students should find this humorous and informative. A. Communication Forms of Communication 1. Spoken 2. Written 3. Body Language 4. Pictures Note: When communicating with different cultures or folks from differing backgrounds the use of multiple forms of communication helps get your message across. Communication: The process of sharing meaning by transmitting messages through media, such as words, behavior, or material artifacts. Culture is conveyed and perpetuated through communication B. Noise Noise: Anything that serves to undermine the communication of the intended meaning. The more dissimilar the culture of the sender and receiver, the greater the noise in the communication process. Attribution is the process by which people look for the explanation of another person’s behavior. According to Hall and Hall, when people do not understand each other, they tend to blame their confusion on the other person’s stupidity, deceit or craziness. C. The Culture – Communication Link Trust provides many benefits including minimizing problems caused by cultural differences, adjusting to unforeseen circumstances with less conflict, and facilitating open communication.
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Cultivating trust: a. Create a clear and calculated basis for mutual benefit. b. Improve predictability by striving to resolve conflicts and keeping communication open. c. Develop mutual bonding through regular socializing and friendly contact. Here are the key observations: 1. People in societies ranked high on performance orientation present objective information in a direct and explicit way. However, dealing people low on performance orientation (e.g., Russia or Greece), use a more indirect approach. 2. When communicating with people low on assertiveness , use a friendly approach. 3. For those high on the humane dimension , avoid conflict and communicate in a supportive manner. D. Cultural Variables in the Communication Process (can induce noise) 1. Cultural variables that can influence a person’s perceptions have been identified through research. The cultural variables are: attitudes, social organization, thought patterns, roles, language (spoken of written), non-verbal communication (including kinesic behavior, paralanguage, proxemics and object language) and time. a. Attitudes : Ethnocentric attitudes are a particular source of noise in cross-cultural communications. b. Stereotyping : When a person assumes that every member of a society or subculture has the same characteristics or traits. This is contrasted with a sociotype.
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