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Psychology 1 Review

Psychology 1 Review - Psychology 1 Review Column One...

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Psychology 1 Review: Column One 00:16 Introductory Lecture Types of psychology- p. 15 -Physiological: studies the neural mechanisms of perception & behavior thru direct manipulation  of the brains of nonhuman animal subjects in controlled experiments -Psychophysics (Sensation and Perception): dealing with the relationship between physical stimuli  and their subjective correlates -Quantative (math): application of statistical & mathematical methods to study of psych -Animal experimental: use animals to study  -Human experimental: use humans to study -Neuropsychology: brain studies  -Developmental: study how behavior changes with age “womb to tomb” -Personality: personality differences  -Social: study how individual influences others and how group influences individual -Evolutionary: evolutionary history of behavior   -Industrial: study of people at work  -Consumer: deals with shoppers  -Clinical: adv. Degree specialty in understanding helping people with psychological problems -Counseling: help people with educational, vocational, marriage, health decisions -Educational and school: specialists in the psychological condition of students  History and Research Methods
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Major Philosophical Issues: Free will vs. determinism: Determinism : the assumption that everything that happens has a  cause, or determinant in the observable world (i.e. buy lunch but in doubt). Free will : belief  that behavior is caused by a person’s independent decisions (i.e. not controlled by anything  and no one could have predicted you would do something) Nature vs. nurture (heredity-environment): question of the relative roles played by hereditary  (nature) and environment (nurture) in determining diff. in behavior  Qualities of scientific method: Falsifiability vs. hypothesis: Falsifiability : stated in precise terms that we can see what  evidence would count against it (i.e. imagine what would be evidence against a theory)  hypothesis : clear predictive statement (i.e. ppl who watch violent TV will act more violently) Replicability of findings: anyone can obtain by following the same procedures Parsimonious explanation: “stinginess” given a choice among hypotheses/theories that all  seem to fit that facts, scientists prefer the one whose assumptions are fewer, simpler, and  more consistent with other theories Devaluation of anecdotal: people’s reports of isolated evidence such as amazing coincidence  -Naturalistic observations: careful examination of what many people or nonhuman animals do  under natural conditions (i.e. Jane Goodall and chimps)
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