Chapter 2 Outline - Chapter Outline I Ethics and...

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Chapter Outline I. Ethics and Anthropology A. Researchers must create and maintain proper relations between themselves and the host nations,  regions, and communities where they work. B. The American Anthropological Association's Code of Ethics states that anthropologists should recognize  their debt to the people with whom they work and should reciprocate in appropriate ways. 1. Researchers should obtain informed consent from anyone who provides information or who might  be affected by the research. 2. Researchers should include host country colleagues in their research planning and requests for  funding. 3. Researchers should establish collaborative relationships with host country institutions and  colleagues before, during, and after their fieldwork. 4. Researchers should include host country colleagues in dissemination of the research results. 5. Researchers should ensure that something is "given back" to host country colleagues. II. Research Methods A. Cultural anthropology and sociology share an interest in social relations, organization, and behavior. B. Sociologists have traditionally worked in the large-scale, complex nations of the industrialized West. 1. Sociologists rely heavily on questionnaires and other means of collecting masses of quantifiable  data. 2. Sampling and statistical techniques are basic to sociology. C. Traditionally ethnographers used ethnographic techniques to study small, non-literate (without writing)  populations. D. É mile Durkheim, one of the founders of both anthropology and sociology, compared the organization of  simple and complex societies. III. Ethnography: Anthropology's Distinctive Strategy A. Ethnography is the firsthand, personal study of local cultural settings. B. Early ethnographers conducted research almost exclusively among small-scale, relatively isolated  societies, with simple technologies and economies.
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C. Traditionally, ethnographers have tried to understand the whole of a particular culture. D. In pursuit of this holistic goal, ethnographers usually spend an extended period of time in a given society  or community, moving from setting to setting, place to place, and subject to subject to discover the  totality and interconnectedness of social life. IV. Ethnographic Techniques A. Observation and Participant Observation 1. Ethnographers are trained to be aware of and record details from daily events, the significance of  which may not be apparent until much later.
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