Chapter 5 Outline - Chapter Outline I Introduction A...

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Chapter Outline I. Introduction A. Regional patterns influence the way all Americans speak. B. Some dialects, like that of Midwestern Americans, have few stigmatized linguistic variants. II. Language A. Language is our primary means of communication. 1. Language (like culture in general) is transmitted through learning, as part of enculturation. 2. Language is based on arbitrary, learned associations between words and the things they stand for. 3. Only humans have the linguistic capacity to discuss the past and future, share their experiences  with others, and benefit from their experiences. B. Anthropologists study language in its social and cultural context. III. Nonverbal Communication A. Kinesics is the study of communication through body movements, stances, gestures, and facial  expressions. B. Although our gestures, facial expressions, and body stance have roots in our primate heritage, and can  be seen in the monkeys and the apes, they have not escaped the influence of culture. 1. The prevalence and meaning of body movements, facial expressions, and gestures vary cross- culturally. 2. Body movements communicate social differences. C. Language, which is highly symbolic, is the domain of communication in which culture plays the strongest  role. IV. The Structure of Language A. The scientific study of a spoken language (descriptive linguistics) involves several interrelated areas of  analysis: phonology, morphology, lexicon, and syntax. 1. Phonology, the study of speech sounds, considers which sounds are present and significant in a  given language. 2. Morphology studies the forms in which sounds combine to form morphemes—words and their  meaningful parts.
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3. A language's lexicon is a dictionary containing all of its morphemes and their meanings. 4. Syntax refers to the arrangement and order of words in phrases and sentences. B. Speech Sounds 1. A phoneme is a sound contrast that makes a difference, that differentiates meaning.
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