Chapter 6 Outline - Chapter Outline I. Adaptive Strategies...

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Chapter Outline I. Adaptive Strategies A. Yehudi Cohen used the term adaptive strategy to describe a society's system of economic production. 1. Cohen argued that the most important reason for similarities between two or more unrelated  societies is their possession of a similar adaptive strategy. 2. Cohen developed a typology of societies based on correlations between their economies and their  social forms; this typology includes five adaptive strategies: foraging, horticulture, agriculture,  pastoralism, and industrialism. B. Foraging 1. Until 10,000 years ago all humans were foragers. 2. Most foragers eventually turned to food production, and those foragers who still exist have at least  some dependence on food production or on food producers. 3. All modern foragers live in nation-states, depend to some extent on government assistance, and  are influenced by national and international policies and political and economic events in the world  system. 4. Throughout the world, foraging survived mainly in environments that posed major obstacles to food  production. 5. A few groups living in environments suitable for food production nevertheless remained foragers  because they could support themselves adequately by hunting and gathering. 6. to food production. C. Correlates of Foraging 1. People who subsist by hunting and gathering often, but not always, live in band-organized societies. a. Bands are small groups of fewer than a hundred people, all related by kinship or marriage. b. Among some foragers, band size stays roughly constant throughout the year; in other foraging  societies, bands split up during part of the year. 2. Members of foraging societies typically are socially mobile, having the ability to join any band to  which they have kin or marital links. 3. All human societies have some kind of division of labor based on gender. a. Among foragers, men typically hunt and fish while women gather and collect. b. Among foragers in tropical and semitropical areas, gathering tends to contribute more to the  diet than hunting and fishing do. 4. All foraging societies have social distinctions based on age.
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a. Old people frequently are respected for their special knowledge of ritual and practical matters. b. Most foraging societies are egalitarian (contrasts in prestige are minor and based on age and  gender). II. Cultivation A. Horticulture 1. Horticulture is cultivation that does not make intensive use of land, labor, capital, or machinery. 2.
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This note was uploaded on 03/04/2009 for the course ANTHRO 106 taught by Professor Harper during the Spring '08 term at UMass (Amherst).

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Chapter 6 Outline - Chapter Outline I. Adaptive Strategies...

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