Chapter 7 Outline - Chapter Outline I Introduction A The...

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Chapter Outline I. Introduction A. The anthropological approach to political systems and organization is global and comparative. B. Power is the ability to exercise one's will over others, while authority is the socially approved use of  power. II. What Is "the Political"? A. Sociopolitical organization involves the regulation or management of relations among groups and their  representatives. B. Political regulation includes such processes as decision making and conflict resolution. III. Types and Trends A. Elman Service developed a typology with four kinds of sociopolitical organization: band, tribe, chiefdom,  and state. 1. Although there is archaeological evidence for early bands, tribes, and chiefdoms that existed before  the first states appeared, today none of these polities can be studied as a self-contained form of  political organization, since all exist within the context of nation-states and are subject to state  control. 2. Bands are small kin-based groups found among foragers. 3. Tribes had economies based on non-intensive food production (horticulture and pastoralism), lived  in villages, were organized into kin groups based on common descent (clans and lineages), and  lacked a formal government. 4. The chiefdom, a form of sociopolitical organization intermediate between the tribe and the state,  was kin-based like bands and tribes, but characterized by a permanent political structure and  differential access to resources (some people had more wealth, prestige, and power than others). 5. The state is characterized by formal government and socioeconomic stratification. B. Although Service's typology is too simple to account for the full range of political diversity and  complexity known to archaeologists and ethnographers, it does highlight some significant contrasts in  sociopolitical organization, especially those between states and nonstates. C. In bands and tribes—unlike states, which have clearly visible governments—political organization was  not separate and distinct from the total social order. D. Correlations
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1. There are many correlations between economy and sociopolitical organization. a. Foragers tended to have band organization. b. Horticulturalists and pastoralists tended to have tribal organization. c. Chiefdoms and nonindustrial states usually had agricultural economies, although herding was  important in some Middle Eastern chiefdoms. 2. In general, food production was accompanied by larger, denser populations and more complex  economies, resulting in new regulatory problems that in turn gave rise to more complex relations  and linkages (greater social and political complexity).
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