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Unformatted text preview: Chapter Outline I. Families A. Nuclear and Extended Families 1. The nuclear family consists of parents and their children. 2. Most people belong to at least two nuclear families at different times in their lives: a family of orientation and a family of procreation. a. Family of orientation is the family in which one is born and grows up. b. A family of procreation is formed when one marries and has children. 3. Nuclear family organization is widespread but not universal. 4. In certain societies, the nuclear family is rare or nonexistent or has no special role in social life. 5. In some societies, social units such as extended families and descent groups assume most or all of the functions otherwise associated with the nuclear family. a. Among the Muslims of western Bosnia, nuclear families were embedded within large extended families called zadrugas, each headed by a male household head and his wife. b. The Nayars of southern India lived in matrilineal extended family compounds called tarawads, each headed by a senior woman. B. Industrialism and Family Organization 1. For many North Americans, the nuclear family is the only well defined kin group. 2. The most prevalent residence pattern among middle-class North Americans is neolocality—married couples are expected to establish a new place of residence. 3. Expanded family households (those that include nonnuclear relatives) are more common among lower-class North Americans. a. An extended family household includes three or more generations. b. A collateral household includes siblings and their spouses and children. c. The greater frequency of expanded family households among poorer Americans is an adaptation to poverty that enables relatives to pool their resources. C. Changes in North American Kinship 1. Although the nuclear family remains a cultural ideal for many Americans, other domestic arrangements now outnumber the "traditional" American household more than three to one. 2. With more women joining the workforce, the age of first marriage has increased. 3. The divorce rate has also risen dramatically (three times faster than the population growth rate between 1970 and 2003), as has the number of single-parent families. 4. The percentage of adults who are married has decreased. 5. The trend toward smaller families and living units in the United States is also detectable in western Europe and other industrial nations....
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- Spring '08
- Polyandry, descent groups, Edmund Leach, B. Bridewealth