Chapter 13 Outline

Chapter 13 Outline - Chapter Outline I. Acculturation...

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Chapter Outline I. Acculturation refers to changes that result when groups come into continuous firsthand contact—changes in  the cultural patterns of either or both groups. II. Contact and Domination A. The term acculturation has most often been applied to cases of Westernization—the influence of  Western expansion on native societies. B. Acculturation may be voluntary or forced. C. Different degrees of destruction, domination, resistance, survival, adaptation, and modification of native  cultures may follow interethnic contact. 1. An initial encounter between an indigenous society and more powerful outsiders often is followed  by a "shock phase," during which the indigenous population may be attacked, exploited, and  repressed. 2. As a result, the indigenous group may suffer cultural collapse (ethnocide) or even physical  extinction (genocide). 3. Political and economic colonialists (and even some agricultural development projects) have tried to  redesign conquered and dependent lands, peoples, and cultures, imposing their cultural standards  on others. D. Development and Environmentalism 1. Today, core-based multinational corporations (rather than the governments of core nations) often  are the instigators of economic change in Third World nations. 2. Governments of many peripheral and semiperipheral nations have supported the predatory  enterprises of corporations seeking cheap labor and raw materials in their countries. 3. Even well-intentioned interference (e.g., by environmentalists) may be treated as a form of cultural  domination by subject populations. 4. Like development projects, conservation efforts must respect cultural variation and autonomy, and  build upon native forms, if they are to be successful. 5. Culture clashes related to environmental change may occur when development threatens  indigenous peoples and their environments (e.g., the Kayapó of Brazil and the Kaluli of Papua New  Guinea), or when external regulation threatens indigenous peoples. a. By declaring certain resources off limits, outsiders may expect local people to give up  customary economic and cultural activities without clear substitutes, alternatives, or incentives. b.
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This note was uploaded on 03/04/2009 for the course ANTHRO 106 taught by Professor Harper during the Spring '08 term at UMass (Amherst).

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Chapter 13 Outline - Chapter Outline I. Acculturation...

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