03-endocrine%20physiology - A brief tour of your endocrine...

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A brief tour of your endocrine glands and how they work.
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Types of chemical signaling: Intracrine: chemical signal within a cell Autocrine: secreted chemical acts on same cell – autoreceptors Paracrine: secreted chemical acts on neighbors – like synaptic transmission Endocrine: secreted chemical carried by blood – hormones Exocrine: chemical secreted into ducts Paracrine (neurotransmitters) Endocrine (hormones)
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There are three kinds of hormones: Amines Steroids Peptides
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There are three principal kinds of hormones: Amines are derivatives of single amino acids. Examples include epinephrine, and melatonin. Sources include adrenal medulla and pineal. from the adrenal medulla derived from tyrosine from the pineal gland derived from tryptophan amino groups each bend is a carbon (C) atom
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Steroids are all derivatives of cholesterol. Examples include progesterone, testosterone, and cortisol. Sources are ovaries, testes, and adrenal cortex. basic steroid structure (4 rings, 17 carbons) A B C D There are three principal kinds of hormones:
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Peptide and protein hormones are chains of amino acids. Examples include insulin and luteinizing hormone. Sources include the pancreas and the pituitary gland. ● Peptides are short chains, ≈ 50 amino acids or fewer Proteins are longer chains of amino acids There are three principal kinds of hormones:
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Proteins and peptides are made up of chains of amino acids amino acid side chain
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amino acid amino acid Formation of a peptide bond dipeptide
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Protein structure can be enormously complicated. This diversity allows proteins to have so many functions.
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Different ways of representing the 3-D structure of proteins.
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Your Glands: Top to Bottom (mostly)
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The hypothalamus and pituitary gland(s) are the two most important endocrine structures in the body from a neuro- endocrinologist’s point of view
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Actually, the pituitary gland is two separate glands right next to each other – the anterior pituitary and the posterior pituitary.
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Control of the anterior pituitary Portal vein: a blood vessel that joins two capillary beds (tropic hormones) (releasing hormones)
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The posterior pituitary is actually part of the brain; the anterior pituitary is not. Control of the posterior pituitary
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(just the cortex) The anterior pituitary gland controls the thyroid, the adrenal cortex , the ovaries, and the testes.
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(the medulla) Other glands are controlled by direct innervation.
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