09-hunger%20%26%20energy%20balance

09-hunger%20%26%20energy%20balance - Neuroendocrinology of...

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Unformatted text preview: Neuroendocrinology of energy balance and food intake. These little ones are mice. These over here are hamsters. Ooh! This must be a gerbil! Obesity has become a huge public health problem in industrialized societies. It has become the most active area of research in endocrinology, including behavioral endocrinology. Weight reduction plans have become a major industry in the US. Pretty much any scheme works in the short term. But pretty much nothing works in the long term. 1. What are the internal signals that elicit the behavior? The big issues for any motivated behavior: 2. How/where is this information detected and converted to changes in neural activity? 1. What neural circuitry mediates the behaviors? 1. What are the signals from outside the creature that affect the behavior? Neuroendocrinologists mostly study questions 1-3, but the biggie is really question 4. 1. What are the internal signals that elicit the behavior? The big issues for any motivated behavior: 2. How/where is this information detected and converted to changes in neural activity? 1. What neural circuitry mediates the behaviors? 1. What are the signals from outside the creature that affect the behavior? What are the internal signals that elicit the behavior? Something to do with the amount of energy available for oxidation and generation of ATP. So we have to know something about how the body handles metabolic fuels. An important fact of life is that, unlike grazing animals, we do not get a continuous flow of metabolic fuels, so were subjected to alternating periods of energy surfeit (after a meal) and deficit (before the next meal). Energy surfeit. Nearly all of the bodys energy comes from: Glucose: Fatty acids: Each bend is a carbon atom After being absorbed from the gut, a number of things can happen to glucose . 1. It can be taken up by cells and oxidized to generate ATP. glucose + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + some heat + a bunch of ATP wood + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + a lot of heat Biological systems are uniquely able to oxidize fuels and trap some of the energy that is released as ATP rather than losing all the energy as a bunch of heat. all cells in the body use glucose for energy all of them except the brain can use fatty acids, too the brain is an obligatory oxidizer of glucose it can- not use other metabolic fuels except under highly unusual circumstances (prolonged starvation) insulin is required for glucose to leave the blood- stream and enter cells except in the brain (mostl y) Glucose oxidation: in the absence of insulin (diabetes mellitus) glucose cannot enter cells (except in the brain), so it builds up in the blood and causes hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) diabetes mellitus excessive urination tastes sweet type 1 diabetes body cant make insulin type 2 diabetes body can make insulin, but is insensitive to it (insulin resistance ) diabetes insipidus excessive urination no taste completely unrelated to diabetes mellitus...
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This note was uploaded on 03/04/2009 for the course PSYCH 335 taught by Professor Georgewade during the Fall '08 term at UMass (Amherst).

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09-hunger%20%26%20energy%20balance - Neuroendocrinology of...

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