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Unformatted text preview: Main Concepts in Vygotsky’s Theory
! Contemporary of Piaget, but lived in the Soviet Union (1896-1934) ! Focused on the role of culture ! Dialectic constructivism ! Language Chapter Nine Cognition: Information Processing Psych 350 Fall 2008 1 2 A Schematic Model of Human Information Processing Attention Source: Adapted from Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968. -Vigilance -Ignore noise -Overt attention -Covert attention -Sustained/focus attention
3 Psych 350 Fall 2008 4 Psych 350 Fall 2008 Psych 350 Fall 2008 5 Psych 350 Fall 2008 6 Early Attention
! Habituation ! Externality effect figure palping hand, could distinguish it later unmistakably,in the majority of cases. The experimentsin which the eye movements of children of different age groups in the process of perceiving were filmed, also showed considerable changes in the character of perceiving actions in the course of the child's development. For these experiments,Zinchenkoand Ruzskayaused the same figures of an irregularform (30 X 40 cm.). The figures were projected for 20 sec. on a screen that had a hole for a camera in the center. The children were asked to look at the screen attentively so that they could recognize the figures among other figures later (in the control experiments). In 3- and 4-year-oldchildren,under the conditionsof this sensoryproblem, the movements of the eye were not numerous.The periods of fixation between movements were much longer than in older children. The movements were within the figure and sometimes they followed the central line Attentional Deployment MONOGRAPHS 3-4 year olds3). At the same time, we could observe the movements across the figure.
EUROPEANRESEARCH of the figure once. Often the subject'sattentionwas distractedby the camera. The movement of the eye following the outline of the figure was not registered at all (Fig. 1). The child's technique of studying is very primitive here, and recognition is very low. Half the answers were wrong, and the children mixed up figures that were quite differentin form. In children of 4 to 5 yearsFIG. 1the eye movementswere also mainly of age, within the figure (Fig. 2). The number of movements was twice as great as main, the outline of the fiure, as if reproducingor modeling its form (Fig. 86
PLATE 2A PLATE 2B FIG. 3 movements solved an important o Probably, 4-5 year olds tthesearea of the also 6-7 nyearofoldsrienting problem, he The umber movements the Psych 350 Fall 2008 7 FIG. 2 PLATE 2C in the previous group and the time of fixation was correspondinglyless. Judging by direction,we think that the movementswere oriented to the size and the length of the figure. There were many long movements that were aimed, probably, at measuring the object. Although we did not see movements tracing the outline of the object, in this age group, we did find some groups of fixing points that were close to each other and related to the most specific features of the object. This method gave better results in recognizing the object during control experimentsthan it did with 3-year-old children. Five- and six-year-oldchildren began tracing the outline of the perceived figure, but usually they looked at a part of the outline (the most specific one) while the rest was left unexamined.The number of eye movements during the exposuretime was approximately he same in the group of t 5-year-old children as in the group of 4-year-olds. Many such movements yielded little informationto help solve the given problem. These were movements within the figure,for example.Nevertheless,the method was adequate for the child to recognize the perceived object later and the majority of 5-year-old children gave correct answers during control experiments. With 6- to 7-year-old children, the eye movements followed, in the 87 Deploying Attention: Comparing Houses Overt attention during driving
PLATE 2E measuring figure. during exposure time was greater than that of younger children, and the duration of fixationswas shorter. Using such active and perfect methods of examination,the childrengave 100 per cent correct answers during control experiments.But not only this: 8 Psych 350 experimentsof Boguslavskayaand others showed that this age group could PLATE 2D Fall 2008 also solve more difficult sensory problems connected with adequate reproduction of perceived figures in the process of drawing, constructing,modeling, etc. Although we could have studied the development of perception actions in detail in the spheres of vision and touch only, the results of some of our experiments, as well as some works by other psychologists, gave us the right to think that changes of the same kind could be found in other sensory spheres. Experiments by Y. Z. Neverovich show, for example, that the formationof some probing, orienting movements, clarifying the inner, proprioceptive picture of a motor act, play an importantrole in the development of kinesthetic perceptions. Investigations by A. N. Leontiev and research workers of our laboratory (Endovitskaya,Repina) testify that the development of methods of active reproductionof sounds will make an imi portant contributionto the genesis of pitch-discriminationn children. The same phenomenawere observedby Elkoninand Zhurovain the development of the ability to perceive phonemes, as the modeling of specific features of the stressed sounds, in verbal speech by means of "soundingout" plays an importantpart in acousticanalysisof a word. We have given a short description of the formation of perceptive ac- Zaporozhets (1965) 88 Human Performance Lab at UMass http://www.ecs.umass.edu/hpl/ Vurpillot (1965). "The Development of Scanning Strategies and Their Relation to Visual Differentiation," in Journal of Experimental 9 Psych 350 Child Psychology, Volume 6, 632-650 Fall 2008 Psych 350 Fall 2008 10 Selective Attention: Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS) From Zelazo et al. From Zelazo et al.
11 12 Psych 350 Fall 2008 Psych 350 Fall 2008 Development of sustained attention Sarid, M. & Breznitz, Z. (1997).Developmental aspects of sustained attention in 2- to 6year-old children, International Journal of Behavioral Development, 21, 303-312
Psych 350 Fall 2008 13 Psych 350 Fall 2008 14 Memory in Infancy
Infantile Amnesia: Failure to remember events from the first two to there years of one’s life. The Development Of Memory
Memory in infancy: " Habituation " DeCasper et al. (HAS) " Swain et al. Recognition in neonates Day 2 habituation Psych 350 Fall 2008 15 Psych 350 Fall 2008 16 Fetal Recognition Memory The Development Of Memory
Memory in infancy: " Habituation " DeCasper et al. (HAS) " Swain, Zelazo, & Clifton, 1993 " Myers, Clifton, & Clarkson, 1986 " Rovee-Collier et al. Recognition in neonates Kisilevsky et al. (2003), Psychological Science Psych 350 Fall 2008 17 Psych 350 Fall 2008 18 Rovee-Collier et al. Rovee-Collier et al. Psych 350 Fall 2008 19 Psych 350 Fall 2008 20 Rovee-Collier et al. Rovee-Collier: Maximum Retention Interval Psych 350 Fall 2008 21 Psych 350 Fall 2008 22 Rovee-Collier et al. Figure 9.5: Time Windows in Remembering Infant Behavior & Development, Vol. 18, Rovee-Collier et al., “The time-window hypothesis,” pp. 69-78. Psych 350 Fall 2008 23 Psych 350 Fall 2008 24 Developmental Changes in Memory
! Capacity: how much and how long. ! Strategies for remembering Free Recall Psych 350 Fall 2008 25 Psych 350 Fall 2008 26 Developmental Changes in Free Recall Serial Order Effect Memory Strategies
! Rehearsal: " repetition of items to be remembered ! Organization: " using categories or some other higher-order relationship to reorder items to be remembered ! Elaboration: " Linking items to be remembered in an image or sentence Adapted from Ornstein, Naus, & Liberty, “Rehearsal and Organization Processes in Children’s Memory,” Child Development, 46, pp. 818-830. 27 Psych 350 Copyright © 1975. Used by permission of Society for Research in Child Development. Fall 2008 Psych 350 Fall 2008 28 Memory Strategies
! Production deficiency ! Utilization deficiency Strategy Choice: A Microgenetic Analysis Of Children’s Strategy Use Strategy use in the session after the one in which children first used the shortcut strategy. Siegler & Stern (1998)
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