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Unformatted text preview: Emotions
! Emotions are a complex set of behaviors produced in response to some event; they motivate action. Chapter Eleven Emotion 1 Psych 350 Fall 2008 2 Components of Emotions
! Physiological ! Expressive ! Experiential The Functions of Emotions
! Regulate overt actions ! Influence cognitive processing ! Initiate, maintain, or terminate interactions with others Psych 350 Fall 2008 3 Psych 350 Fall 2008 4 Theories of Emotional Development
! Biologically based theories: ! Cognitive-socialization: cognitive processes mediate emotion. ! Emotions as socially imbedded processes: part of social interaction. 1872 From Darwin, 1872 Psych 350 Fall 2008 5 Psych 350 Fall 2008 6 Ekman et al. Ekman et al. (1969) From Darwin, 1872 Psych 350 Fall 2008 7 Psych 350 Fall 2008 8 Emotional Development Primary Emotions – 1st Year
1. At birth – • positive (contentment) • negative (distress) 2. 3-4 Months • Joy, anger, fear 3. Laughter at about 6 months. 4. Anxiety-fear about 9 months, parent leaving, stranger approaching 5. By the end of the first year • Surprise, sadness, disgust
Psych 350 Fall 2008 9 Psych 350 Fall 2008 10 Emotional Development Emotional Development Secondary Emotions – 18-24 months •Embarrassment, pride, shame, guilt, envy, jealousy. •Require greater understanding of self and others •Also called Self-conscious emotions Birth Cry Infant crying elicits reactions from others. Do infants differentiate their cries and do caregivers respond appropriately? Pain Cry Psych 350 Fall 2008 11 Hunger Cry Psych 350 Fall 2008 12 IMHJ (Wiley) LEFT BATCH 8 ● R. Feldman Classification of newborn cry Cry phase Expiratory Rest Inspiratory Rest Basic Cry 0.62 0.08 0.04 0.20 Angry Cry 0.69 0.20 0.05 0.11 Pain Cry 3.83 3.99 0.18 0.16 conceptualizes adult romantic relations as derivatives and indicative of early attachment relationships and assesses the attachment classiﬁcations of security, avoidance, and ambivalence on the basis of the adult’s current intimate relationships. The instrument includes three paragraphs, each consisting of ﬁve statements, and participants mark the description that best ﬁts their intimate relationships. In the Hebrew version (Mikulincer et al., 1990), each of the ﬁve statements is also presented separately in a mixed order and rated on a seven-point scale, which enables the assessment of the three attachment prototypes as continuous variables. Of the three prototypes, only the parent’s security score was used in the present study. Mean (and SD) security scores were 4.77 (1.10) for mothers and 4.53 (1.02), for fathers with no signiﬁcant difference between parents (higher score implies more security). Internal consistency for this sample was, alpha .78 in the mother report and .75 in the father report. Depressive symptoms. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) (Beck, 1978) was employed to measure parental level of depressive symptoms. The BDI includes 21 items on a three-point scale and is the most widely used self-report instrument for the assessment of depressive symptoms, with well-established reliability and validity (Bumberry, Oliver, & McClure, 1978). Mean (and SD) BDI scores were 6.20 (4.29) for mothers and 3.91 (3.17) for fathers, indicating higher levels of depressive symptoms for mothers. The difference between mothers’ and fathers’ depressive symptoms was signiﬁcant, F(1,199) 18.36, p .001. Internal consistency was, alpha .88 in the mother report and .81 in the father report.
Psych 350 Fall 2008 14 From Wolff (1966). Values are the lengths of phases in seconds
Psych 350 Fall 2008 13 Coding System for Analyzing Synchrony and Arousal IMHJ (Wiley) RIGHT BATCH To provide affective data that could be analyzed for synchrony and arousal measures, the affective states of the parent and infant during the interaction were coded separately in onesecond frames using the Monadic Phases Manual (Tronick, Als, & Brazelton, 1980). In this coding system, the stream of affective behavior of each partner is coded using ﬁve codes (“phases”) for the parent and six codes for the infant. Each code is determined on the basis of facial expressions, vocalizations, direction of gaze, body orientation, and the level of observed Synchrony and Arousal 13 positive or negative arousal, which cohere into a distinct affective conﬁguration (Beebe & Gerstman, 1980; Weinberg & Tronick, 1994).and Arousal TABLE 1. Descriptive Statistics for Synchrony The following codes were used:
● t b c b 1. Protest (infant only) —Mother– vocalizations, negative facial expression, gaze and body fuss-cry Mother– Father– Father– Daughter Son Son aversion, and observed negative affect. Infant Daughter demonstrates clearly a refusal to participate in the interaction. 2. Avert — gaze aversion, low state of arousal, relaxed facial expression, and no observed affect, indicating a period of “off” or disengagement. A: Synchrony
Degree of Synchrony .18 .06 .16 .05 .20 C 3. ObjectSynchrony— a period of engagement, gaze,.17 body are directed toward an ,object, Attend b and .06 26% .07 3.85* D B D C Mutual 29% 24% 17% 4.21* A affect is generally positive with an occasional3.44 2.45 2.52is at a medium level, with smile, arousal 1.24 3.96* A B, D C Time-Lag-to-Synchrony 2.35 1.13 3.05 2.08 no (seconds) high positive arousal. signs of
a A: B: C: D: M SD M SD M SD M SD Interaction F 4. B: ArousalAttend — same as object attend but gaze and orientation is toward the partner’s Social c Social .27 .23 .26 .22 .26 .23 .23 .20 .68 face. Orientation Positive Arousalc .16 .09 .17 .07 .19 .10 .20 .10 1.85
Pattern Play — 5. Objectof Arousalb:orientation is toward an object and positive arousal is at a high level. No 14% 15% 1.65 High peak positive arousal44% detected 35% clear signs of positive energy, such as laughing, is by One peak 25% 30% 29% 23% giggling, peak high-pitched motherese,62% excited movements, or other Multiple sing-song vocalizations,35% 31% 57% signs of joy and exuberance. 6. Numbers represent— same the crosscorrelation coefﬁcients. Social Play the size of as object play but orientation is directed toward the partner. Social
b c .05. Vuorenkoski1, WaSZ-Höckert, E. Koivisto, and J. Lind, 1965
Psych 350 Fall 2008 15 Numbers represent the percentages of dyads showing Mutual Synchrony or speciﬁc patterns of arousal. Numbers represent the proportion of frames infants showed Social Orientation or Positive Arousal.
Psych 350 Fall 2008 16 Early Emotional Development ysis of variance (ANOVA) and for the categorical variable (mutual synchrony) with log-linear analysis. ANOVA for the degree of synchrony was computed after coefﬁcients were transformed into z scores. As seen in Table 1, interaction effects were found for all three synchrony variables, suggesting a closer affective coordination between same-gender dyads. Post hoc comparisons with Duncan’s tests followed the three signiﬁcant interaction effects. Results showed that for the degree of synchrony, signiﬁcant differences were found between father – daughter and father – son synchrony, F(1, 99) 3.98, p .05, but not between mother – daughter and mother – son synchrony. For mutual synchrony, post hoc comparisons indicated signiﬁcant differences between mothers’ interaction with sons and daughters, F(1, 99) 3.79, p .05, as well as between fathers’ interaction with sons and daughters, F(1, 99) 3.83, p .05. Finally, post hoc comparisons showed that same-gender partners were quicker to respond to changes in each other’s affective states. Signiﬁcant differences emerged between mother – son and mother – daughter dyads; F(1, 99) 3.76, p .05, as well as between father – son and father – daughter dyads, F(1, 99) 3.98, p .05. Feldman (2003), 20 weeks old Temperament Arousal. personality attributes believed variance (MANOVA) with parent gender and A similar multivariate analyses of to have a heredity basis. infant gender as the between-subject factors conducted for identified 3 basic ! Chess and Thomas (1982, 1990, 1991) the three arousal variables (social orientation, positive arousal, pattern of arousal) revealed no overall main or interaction effect. patterns: Different patterns of arousal characterized infant – mother and infant – father interactions. ! Jerome Kagan investigated behaviorally inhibited and The no-peak pattern and the single-peak pattern were more frequent during infant – mother uninhibited children interactions, whereas the multiple-peak pattern was more frequent during father – infant interaction: 2(2) 6.08, N 200, p .05. As seen in Table 1, during mother – infant interactions, most infants cycled between states of neutral and low arousal with or without a single positive peak, and when the single peak appeared it was typically embedded within a social episode. ! Temperament: Stable, early appearing constellation of individual s s Social Referencing
Psych 350 Fall 2008 17 Psych 350 Fall 2008 18 ABSTRACT
contact with fewer caregivers and smaller age- and disability-integrated groups to facilitate caregiver–child relationships. The Baby Homes were nonrandomly assigned to one of three conditions: both training and structural changes (T1SC) were implemented in one orphanage, training only Importance of no intervention (NoI) in a third. (TO) in a second, and Research on Attachment Results showed that the interventions were successfully implemented, and caregivers improved their ward behavior (HOME Inventory) over the course of Petersburg-USAin T1SC than TO. The Team (2008). produced The St. the study, more Orphanage Research interventions The substantial early social-emotionaldevelopment of children, both typically effects of improvements in the and relationship experience on the developing andof young orphanage children. SRCD Monographs, 73. development those with disabilities, greater for children in T1SC than TO than NoI, and greater after 91 than 4–9 months of exposure to the 1-262. intervention (i.e., dose–response and/or age effect). Developmental improvements occurred for physical growth (e.g., height, weight, chest circumference), all aspects of general behavioral development (Battelle Developmental Inventory), a variety of social–emotional-relationship behaviors (Parent–Child Early Relationship Assessment, Infant Affect Manual), and attachment categories, behavior ratings, and dimensions. Scientiﬁcally, these results are consistent with the frequently voiced hypothesis that the major corrosive element of early institutional experience is the relative lack of social–emotional experience and warm, caring, sensitive, responsive caregiver–child interactions and relationships, and they suggest the potential role such early experience plays in many aspects of development. From a practical standpoint, training was not very effective by itself; it was more beneﬁcial in combination with structural changes that supported Psych 350 social–emotional relationships. These results provide a rationale for 20 making Fall 2008 similar improvements in other institutions and perhaps in foster care and nonresidential care environments as well and for balancing skill building with social–emotional-relationship training in early childhood personnel preparation curricula. Importance of Research on Attachment
This study represents a quasi-experimental test of the role of early social–emotional experience and adult–child relationships in the development St. typically developing children and those with disabilitiesThe to 4 The of Petersburg-USA Orphanage Research Team (2008). birth years of age living in orphanages in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation. The effects of early social-emotional and relationship experience on the three orphanages in the current study wereSRCD Monographs, 73.were development of young orphanage children. selected because they among the best in St. Petersburg and their directors were willing to coop1-262. erate with the project. They met reasonable institutional standards for medical care, nutrition, physical environment, sanitation, toys and equipment, specialized professional services, and the lack of abuse, but similar to many other orphanages in the literature they were deﬁcient in the social– emotional caregiver–child interactions and lack of relationship experiences provided to children. Caregivers performed routine duties in a perfunctory, business-like manner with minimum interaction with children. In addition, children had 9–12 caregivers per week, as many as 60–100 different caregivers over the ﬁrst 2 years of life, and no caregiver today as yesterday or tomorrow. Two interventions designed to improve the social–emotional-relationship experience of children were implemented. Training used a trainthe-trainer approach to educate staff on all aspects of early childhood Psych 350 19 development and mental health,Fall 2008 emphasizing warm, caring, sensitive, responsive, and developmentally appropriate interactions especially during routine caregiving duties. Structural changes consisted mainly of reducing group size from approximately 12 to 6, assigning two primary caregivers to each subgroup so that a primary caregiver was available every day, terminating periodic transitions of children to new wards and caregivers, integrating groups by age and disability status, and establishing Family Hour for 1 hr in the morning and afternoon in which caregivers were instructed to be with their children. Thus, the interventions promoted a social–emotional behavioral style of interaction with children (e.g., responsiveness, talking, playing, shared emotions), not speciﬁc actions or programs of activities, plus an employment and organizational structure that provided more consistent
vii Attachment: Background Attachment: Background ! Attachment: Strong emotional bond that emerges between infant and caregiver. Note, this is from the child’s point of view. ! Theories emphasizing infant-mother relationship: " Ethological, imprinting " Freud ! Studies of deprivation: " American orphanages (Skeels) " Aftermath of WW II (Bowlby; Spitz) " Romanian orphanages (Rutter) " Experimental studies with rhesus monkeys (Harlow)
Psych 350 Fall 2008 21 viii Ethological theorists view attachment as an innate, adaptive phenomenon that promotes proximity between infant and caregiver, and ensures the infant’s survival
Psych 350 Fall 2008 22 Attachment: Background
! Attachment: Strong emotional bond that emerges between infant and caregiver. Note, this is from the child’s point of view. ! Theories emphasizing infant-mother relationship: " Ethological, imprinting " Freud ! Studies of deprivation: " American orphanages (Skeels) " Aftermath of WW II (Bowlby; Spitz) " Romanian orphanages (Rutter) " Experimental studies (Harlow)
Psych 350 Fall 2008 23 Attachment and Learning Theory ! Behaviorist learning theorists emphasized the mother’s association with feeding " Primary Reinforcer " Secondary Reinforcer ! Harlow concluded it was “contact comfort” not feeding that played central role in the development of attachment. Psych 350 Fall 2008 24 Figure 11.5: Forming Attachments: The "Cloth Mother" and "Wire Mother" Cloth and wire monkeys
18 15 cloth mother 12 9 6 3 0 wire mother cloth fed wire fed HOURS SPENT WITH MOTHER 5
Psych 350 Fall 2008 25 25 45 65 105 85 MEAN AGE (DAYS)
Fall 2008 125 145 165 Reprinted with permission from Harlow, H.F., & Zimmerman, R.R., “Affectional Responses in350 American Association for the Psych the Infant Monkey,” Science, 130, 421-432. Copyright 1959 26 Advancement of Science. Harlow
Secure Base Bowlby's Phases Of Attachment Formation PHASE I: INDISCRIMINANTE SOCIABILITY Infant shows no preference among care-givers PHASE II: ATTACHMENTS IN THE MAKING Infant shows increasing preference for most familiar and responsive individuals PHASE III: SPECIFIC, CLEAR-CUT ATTACHMENTS Infant displays separation anxiety and stranger anxiety Birth - 2 months 2 - 7 months 7 - 24 months 24 months Fear Response PHASE IV :GOAL-COORDINATED PARTNERSHIPS Infant can increasingly tolerate short parental absences
(Bowlby, 1969) Psych 350 Fall 2008 27 Psych 350 Fall 2008 28 Readings for Exam IV Ainsworth Strange Situation ! ! ! ! Vygotsky, pages 301-306. Attention and memory, pages 311-330. Box on pages 335-336 on Siegler. Read pages 465-474 from the text on Gender, and pages 568-578 on children and TV. Psych 350 Fall 2008 29 Psych 350 Fall 2008 30 Ainsworth Strange Situation Attachment Classifications
! Secure attachment: anxiety and protest at separation and positive affect at reunion. Use mother as secure base for exploration. Comfortable with mother’s presence. (Type B) (secure) ! Avoidant attachment: less distressed with separation and less positive affect with return. Avoid or ignore mother. (Type A) (insecure) ! Ambivalent (or resistant) attachment: Tension, proximity seeking, clinging excessively, angry, rejecting with return. May be extremely passive. (Type C) (insecure) ! Disorganized/disoriented attachment: Fear of caregiver, confused facial expression. Stress. (Type D) (insecure)
Psych 350 Fall 2008 32 Attachment type can be primarily scored from •The amount of exploration (e.g. playing with new toys) the child engages in throughout. • The child's reactions to the departure and return of its caregiver. Source: Adapted from Ainsworth et al., 1978 Psych 350 Fall 2008 31 Secure Attachment Insecure-Avoidant Attachment Psych 350 Fall 2008 33 Psych 350 Fall 2008 34 Insecure-Ambivalent/Resistant Attachment Antecedents of Secure Attachment
Ainsworth et al. (1971, 1972, 1974), repeated home visits during first year. 1. Sensitive: noticing infant’s signals. 2. Accepting: of caregiver role. 3. Cooperation: wait for infant to finish activity before imposing a request, gentle persuasion instead of assertive control. 4. Accessible: provide quick response to signals, particularly crying. Mothers of insecurely attached children were often rigid, unresponsive, demanding and did not feel positive in their role as caregiver. Psych 350 Fall 2008 35 Psych 350 Fall 2008 36 Attachment and Later Development
! Securely attached children more socially competent as preschoolers, respond to problems in flexible, persistent, and resourceful ways. Insecurely attached children display maladaptive and undesirable behavior, high dependency, non-compliance and poor social interaction. ! Securely attached adolescents are more trusting, have higher self-esteem, strong sense of personal identity, fewer depressive symptoms, more socially competent. Insecurely attached adolescents are more prone to anxiety disorders and poorer social competence.
Psych 350 Fall 2008 37 Psych 350 Fall 2008 Van Ijzendoorn & Sagi (2002)
38 Cross Cultural Issues: Separation Anxiety Kagan et al. (1978) Disruptions in Attachment
! Premature infants: Infant often small, fragile looking, less F(4, 72) 5 1.90, p 5 .12, or BH Â Episode Interaction, F(4, 72) 5 179, p 5 .14, and there were no signiﬁcant BH univariate main effects. Attachment dimensions. Similarly, a BH Â Episode multivariate analysis of variance on the two attachment dimensions also failed to produce signiﬁcant differences for BH (Fo1) or the interaction with episode, F(2, 74) 5 1.19, p 5 .31, and no signiﬁcant univariate BH effects emerged (Fso1). Therefore, there was no evidence that children in T1SC were different prior to the intervention from children in the NoI for any of the attachment variables.
Postintervention Effects on Attachment Variables responsive, more difficult to calm, often separated from mother in hospital for extended periods. Mothers of premies hold, touch and smile less in hospital and late become more unusually active to the point of being excessive and intrusive. Risk of insecure attachment only elevated for the VLBW infants. ! Adopted or foster children: Placement of children by six months
does not lead to increase risk of insecure attachment, especially if mothers are sensitive and responsive. Later placements also have good outcomes with appropriate parenting. ! Abused children: Physical or psychological includes neglect.
Likely to fall in the disorganized/disoriented category. Perhaps, as high as 80%. Predict later outcome, preschoolers show hostile behavior towards peers, depressed, self-destructive. Attachment categories. Table 27 presents the percentage of Psych 350 39 postintervention children in T1SC, 2008 and NoI who were given A, B, Fall TO, C, and D attachment categories plus those given A1B1C categories. The three intervention conditions differed signiﬁcantly in the distribution of cases across the four categories, with T1SC children having more B and C and fewer D categories. Because many cells had fewer than ﬁve expected frequencies, categories A, B, and C were combined and tested against D, and the three intervention conditions differed signiﬁcantly on this comparison. In addition, TO did not differ from NoI (w2 5 0.013) but T1SC differed from TO plus NoI combined (w2 5 11.54, po.001); so, essentially, all of the difference between the three intervention conditions was associated with the difference between T1SC The St. Petersburg-USA Orphanageand the other two Team groups. (2008). T1SC children were approximately 2.7 times more likely to In short, have an A, B, or C attachment classiﬁcation than children in the other two intervention groups, and more than twice as many C children were in T1SC. TO had essentially no inﬂuence on attachment categorizations.
TABLE 27 CATEGORIES OF ATTACHMENT (NUMBER, PERCENT) Attachment Category BH T1SC TO NoI A 2 (3.8%) 1 (1.9%) 1 (1.6%) w2 5 13.67, df 5 6, p 5 .034 B 3 (5.8%) 1 (1.9%) 0 (0.0%) C 15 (28.8%) 6 (11.1%) 8 (12.5%) D 32 (61.5%) 46 (85.2%) 55 (85.9%) A1B1C 20 (38.5%) 8 (14.8%) 9 (14.1%) w2 5 12.28, df 5 2, p 5 .002
FOR Psych 350 Fall 2008 40 T1SC, TO, NOI CHILDREN 214 Psych 350 Fall 2008 41 ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/04/2009 for the course PSYCH 350 taught by Professor Anderson during the Fall '08 term at UMass (Amherst).
- Fall '08