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Unformatted text preview: States and Sovereignty States and Sovereignty Welcome to Westphalia Welcome to Westphalia 16181648 16181648
ThirtyYears War Treaty of Westphalia, 1648 Treaty of Westphalia, 1648 World map World map Holy Roman Empire Holy Roman Empire
► Claimed Dominion over central Europe Power of excommunication Power of bureaucracy Church authority gradually undermined up to to 1648 by two factors: ► ► ► Increase in Trade Increase in Trade and the Rise of Towns
► Merchants living in towns got richer Frustrated by the inequities of feudalism ► Status, inefficiency, lack of property rights ► Created alliances with most powerful nobles Merchants provided money
► Strengthened Kings/Queens Kings/Queens provided nobles protection
► Freedom from feudal restraints Money to hire more soldiers EG: Standardization of markets ► These dynamics strengthened centralized political actors, took power away from knights and lords and the church. Protestant Reformation Protestant Reformation Circa 1517
► Martin Luther “95 Theses on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences” ► Catholic Church Stressed original sin, Church as intermediary between individual and God, church authority to forgive / excommunicate ► Protestant Reformation Stressed individualism, personal relationship with God, hard work, achievement, how good you were. Problem: Problem:
Religious Intolerance Treaty of Westphalia (1648) Treaty of Westphalia (1648)
► Parties claimed: To represent separate, sovereign states No overarching authority existed above them Every leader would impose whichever religion he or she saw fit without any outside interference What Makes a What Makes a State A State? Territory Territory Centralized Government Centralized Government Population Population Diplomatic Recognition Diplomatic Recognition
Approval of the Security Council, including all of the Permanent Five States (US, UK, France, Russia, China) Plus, 2/3 vote in the General Assembly More about the UN later in the term. What else do you claim to have if What else do you claim to have if you claim to be a state? Sovereignty What is sovereignty? What is sovereignty?
(This is a question. Take 30 seconds to write down your best guess.) A working definition: A working definition: Sovereignty is a claim to possess supreme legitimate authority within a given territory. Dependent on Free Trade Dependent on Free Trade Dependent on Foreign Energy Dependent on Foreign Energy US Cannot Unilaterally Stem US Cannot Unilaterally Stem Climate Change Even Military Campaigns Require Even Military Campaigns Require Cooperation from Allies A Final Question: A Final Question:
What are the consequences of sovereignty as an ordering principle of world politics? Consequences of the Idea Consequences of the Idea of State Sovereignty
► State seen as principal unit of the system ► Corrollary: international system is “anarchic” ► National and international politics neatly separated ► States are assumed to represent nations Conceptually Normatively International System ► Assumptions or Facts? Open Questions Open Questions
Is sovereignty obsolete? Are states still the most important actors on the world stage? Why or why not? Take Home Message Take Home Message
► In world politics “state” means “country.” ► Sovereignty is a claim states make. ► The sovereignstate system is a historical artifact, not a given. ► This way of organizing the planet has causes and has consequences. ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/04/2009 for the course POLI SCI 121 taught by Professor Peterson during the Spring '08 term at UMass (Amherst).
- Spring '08