Exam1StudyQuestions_090508-1 - Biology100,Fall2008...

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Biology 100, Fall 2008 Exam 1 Study Questions (version 2; 09/05/08) The questions on the first hour exam will be based on those given below. Questions on the exam will be in multiple choice form, but if you can answer the questions here, you will have no trouble with the exam. [Note: These questions are meant to provoke thought and study. Do not ask me or the TAs to provide you with the answers. ] 1. Two of the greatest unifying ideas in biology (i.e., concepts that account for and are consistent with a very large number of observations) are the Cell Theory, and the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection. Most scientific Theories have two components: the pattern component and the process component. What are the two components of Cell Theory and of the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection? What are the two conditions required by the process component of evolutionary theory? Cell Theory states that all organisms are made up of cells and that all cells come form preexisting cells. The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection states that all species are related by a common ancestor and characteristics of species can vary from generation to generation. Two conditions that must be met are individuals differ at least some heritable trait(s) and that individuals with certain heritable traits produce more offspring than individuals with different traits. 2. What is the hypothesis of spontaneous generation and how does Cell Theory challenge that hypothesis? In the Pasteur experiment two types of flasks were used. For each flask, what is the outcome predicted by Spontaneous Generation? By Cell Theory? Why did Pasteur use a swan- necked flask? Why did he boil the broth in both flasks? Spontaneous generation is hypothesis that living organisms can develop spontaneously and rapidly from nonliving, noncellular materials under certain conditions. This counteracts the cell theory because cell theory states that all cells from preexisting cells, so therefore cells cannot appear out of nowhere. Spontaneous generation predicated that organisms would arise from the broth; contradicting cell theory that nothing would appear unless the experiment was tainted with another substance. Pasteur used a swan-necked flask to trap any outside elements from entering the broth. Pasteur boiled both broths to kill any living things preexisting in them. 3. Linnaeus proposed that all living organisms fell into two kingdoms: Plants and Animals. What observations conflicted with Linnaeus’ hypothesis? What was Whittaker’s Five Kingdom system and how did it incorporate the new observations? 4. Linnaeus taxonomic classification system was an attempt based on morphological characteristics to describe the relationship among the diverse forms of life on Earth. The goal of later classification systems has been to reflect phylogeny of species. Why did the goal of taxonomy change?
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