Bio311c-Exam3-Study - Study Questions for BIO 311C Exam#3...

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Study Questions for BIO 311C Exam #3 Exam #3 covers DNA transcription and translation, protein synthesis and trafficking, endomembrane system, organelles of animal and plant cells (function and role in cell activities), energy, photosynthesis, and cellular respiration. Study Campbell’s Biology Chapters 6, 8-10, and 17. Some suggested discussion questions for study: 1. What is the difference between transcription and translation? a. Where do these two processes occur? b. What proteins and organelles are involved in each? 2. DNA transcription a. New nucleotides are added to which end of RNA? b. In what direction does RNA polymerase travel with respect to DNA? c. List 2 differences between DNA and RNA? 3. Genetic code a. What is the mRNA codon for Alanine? Serine? b. What DNA sequence would code for Trp? Be sure to list the 5’ and 3’ ends of the DNA. c. What is meant by “wobble” in third base? d. What is meant by “redundancy” in the code? e. What might be the effect of a mutation in the start codon? The stop codon? 4. Structure of mRNA in eukaryotes – what are the structures and functions? a. 5’ Cap, 5’ UTR, start codon, introns, exons, stop codon, 3’ UTR, poly-A tail 5. What are introns and exons, explain splicing a. How might alternative splicing affect the final protein? Be specific. 6. Ribosome – describe its structure and function in detail. a. What type of macromolecule comprises ribosomes? b. What reaction(s) occur in the ribosome? c. What is the relationship of ribosomes to mRNA? To rough endoplasmic reticulum? d. How can the rate of protein synthesis from one mRNA be accelerated? e. What are the three functional sites on a ribosome? 7. How does the structure of tRNA relate to its function a. Review anticodons, amino acyl synthase, and the relationship of tRNA with ribosomes 8. How does translation terminate? 9. What are signal sequences and what is their proposed function? 10. What is the function of glycosylation? Where does it occur? 11. What are the four “burning” questions and to what process do they relate? a. The questions ask about the path proteins take from translation to destination b. Trace each on Slide 21 from Nov 9 c. You should be able to start with DNA and end with the final destination of the protein 12. Compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
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