Chem_215_Lect_40_Color - Mn-56 by bombardment of Co-59 with...

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1 Ch. 21: Nuclear Chemistry • Radioactivity: – Term coined by Marie Curie to describe the emission of ionizing radiation by certain elements. – Emitted radiation is sufficiently energetic to eject electrons (ionize) or break chemical bonds. – Radiation either electromagnetic or particulate. • Types of Radiation: α particles: Nuclei of He atoms ( i.e., He 2+ ) β - particles: High energy electrons emitted by nuclei γ (gamma) rays: High energy electromagnetic Radiation
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2 Radioactive Processes
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3 Radioactive Decay Series for U-238 He h T U 4 2 234 90 238 92 + β + 0 1 234 91 234 90 a P Th β + 0 1 234 92 234 91 U Pa The term “daughter” refers to the new nuclide produced by radioactive decay: Th-234 is the daughter of U-238.
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4 Nuclear Reactions • Ernest Rutherford (1919): – Discovered that atoms of one element can be transformed into atoms of another element: – Write a nuclear reaction for the production of
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Unformatted text preview: Mn-56 by bombardment of Co-59 with neutrons: H O He N 1 1 17 8 4 2 14 7 + + ? n M n o C 56 25 1 59 27 + + 5 Synthesis of Transuranium Elements Prior to 1940, the heaviest known element was uranium (Z = 92). Since 1940, elements with Z = 93-112, 114, 116 and 118 have been synthesized. 6 Ion Accelerators 7 Cyclotron 8 Radioactive Decay: First Order Rate = k[A] Integrated Rate Law: ln[A] t = ln[A] o- k t Slope = -k k in units of s-1 [A] t =[A] o e-kt k 693 . t 1/2 = Concentration ln Concentration 9 Decay Series for U-238 10 Plot of Number of Neutrons vs. Number of Protons for Stable Nuclides For light nuclides: N/P = 1 For heavier nuclides: N/P > 1, increases with Z All nuclides with 84 or more protons are unstable 11 12 Radioactive Decay of Sr-90 13 Decay of Mo-99 14 Half Lives...
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Chem_215_Lect_40_Color - Mn-56 by bombardment of Co-59 with...

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