204Lecture82006 - Economics 204 Lecture 8Wednesday, August...

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Unformatted text preview: Economics 204 Lecture 8Wednesday, August 9, 2006 Revised 8/9/06, Revisions indicated by ** Chapter 3, Linear Algebra Section 3.1, Bases Definition 1 Let V be a vector space over a field F . A linear combination of x 1 , . . . , x n is a vector of the form y = n X i =1 i x i where 1 , . . . , n F i is the coecient of x i in the linear combination. span X de- notes the set of all linear combinations of X . A set X V is linearly dependent if there exist x 1 , . . . , x n X and 1 , . . . , n F not all zero such that n X i =1 i x i = 0 A set X V is linearly independent if it is not linearly depen- dent. A set X V spans V if span X = V . A Hamel basis (often just called a basis ) of a vector space V is a linearly independent set of vectors in V that spans V . Example: { (1 , 0) , (0 , 1) } is a basis for R 2 . { (1 , 1) , ( 1 , 1) } is another basis for R 2 : ( x, y ) = (1 , 1) + ( 1 , 1) x = y = + x + y = 2 1 = x + y 2 y x = 2 = y x 2 ( x, y ) = x + y 2 (1 , 1) + y x 2 ( 1 , 1) Since ( x, y ) is an arbitrary element of R 2 , { (1 , 1) , ( 1 , 1) } spans R 2 . If ( x, y ) = (0 , 0), = 0 + 0 2 = 0 , = 2 = 0 so the coecients are all zero, so { (1 , 1) , ( 1 , 1) } is linearly in- dependent. Since it is linearly independent and spans R 2 , it is a basis. Example: { (1 , , 0) , (0 , 1 , 0) } is not a basis of R 3 , because it does not span. Example: { (1 , 0) , (0 , 1) , (1 , 1) } is not a basis for R 2 . 1(1 , 0) + 1(0 , 1) + ( 1)(1 , 1) = (0 , 0) so the set is not linearly independent. Theorem 2 (1.2, see Corrections handout) Let B be a Hamel basis for V . Then every vector x V has a unique representation as a linear combination (with all coecients nonzero) of a finite number of elements of B . ( Aside: the unique representation of 0 is 0 = i i b i .) Proof: Let x V . Since B spans V , we can write x = X s S 1 s v s 2 where S 1 is finite, s F , s 6 = 0, v s B for s S 1 . Now, suppose...
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This note was uploaded on 03/06/2009 for the course ECON 0204 taught by Professor Staff during the Summer '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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204Lecture82006 - Economics 204 Lecture 8Wednesday, August...

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