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Unformatted text preview: Economics 204 Lecture 8–Wednesday, August 9, 2006 Revised 8/9/06, Revisions indicated by ** Chapter 3, Linear Algebra Section 3.1, Bases Definition 1 Let V be a vector space over a field F . A linear combination of x 1 , . . . , x n is a vector of the form y = n X i =1 α i x i where α 1 , . . . , α n ∈ F α i is the coeﬃcient of x i in the linear combination. span X de notes the set of all linear combinations of X . A set X ⊆ V is linearly dependent if there exist x 1 , . . . , x n ∈ X and α 1 , . . . , α n ∈ F not all zero such that n X i =1 α i x i = 0 A set X ⊆ V is linearly independent if it is not linearly depen dent. A set X ⊆ V spans V if span X = V . A Hamel basis (often just called a basis ) of a vector space V is a linearly independent set of vectors in V that spans V . Example: { (1 , 0) , (0 , 1) } is a basis for R 2 . { (1 , 1) , ( − 1 , 1) } is another basis for R 2 : ( x, y ) = α (1 , 1) + β ( − 1 , 1) x = α − β y = α + β x + y = 2 α 1 α = x + y 2 y − x = 2 β β = y − x 2 ( x, y ) = x + y 2 (1 , 1) + y − x 2 ( − 1 , 1) Since ( x, y ) is an arbitrary element of R 2 , { (1 , 1) , ( − 1 , 1) } spans R 2 . If ( x, y ) = (0 , 0), α = 0 + 0 2 = 0 , β = − 2 = 0 so the coeﬃcients are all zero, so { (1 , 1) , ( − 1 , 1) } is linearly in dependent. Since it is linearly independent and spans R 2 , it is a basis. Example: { (1 , , 0) , (0 , 1 , 0) } is not a basis of R 3 , because it does not span. Example: { (1 , 0) , (0 , 1) , (1 , 1) } is not a basis for R 2 . 1(1 , 0) + 1(0 , 1) + ( − 1)(1 , 1) = (0 , 0) so the set is not linearly independent. Theorem 2 (1.2’, see Corrections handout) Let B be a Hamel basis for V . Then every vector x ∈ V has a unique representation as a linear combination (with all coeﬃcients nonzero) of a finite number of elements of B . ( Aside: the unique representation of 0 is 0 = ∑ i ∈∅ α i b i .) Proof: Let x ∈ V . Since B spans V , we can write x = X s ∈ S 1 α s v s 2 where S 1 is finite, α s ∈ F , α s 6 = 0, v s ∈ B for s ∈ S 1 . Now, suppose...
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 Summer '08
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 Economics, Linear Algebra, Vector Space, hamel, Hamel basis, αixλi αi

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